Memorandum by the Ukraine Government (provided
by the Counsellor for Science and Technology, Embassy of Ukraine)
ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE TACIS PROGRAMME
This response has been prepared by the TACIS
Co-ordinating Unit within the National Agency of Ukraine for Development
and European Integration. The replies are brief and relate specifically
to the situation of the Environment sector under the TACIS programme
Taking the questions in order:
1. NATURE AND
This is too extensive a question to cover in
this reply, but the 1995 Inter-state project"Development
of Common Environmental Policies in the NIS and Mongolia"
covered the ground in summary fashion.
2. PRIORITIES FOR
THE TACIS PROGRAMME
The 1996-99 Indicative Programme for Ukraine
has identified the following environmental priorities:
waste water management;
solid waste management;
industrial pollution control;
hazardous waste management;
Environmental considerations under the Inter-state
Programme covering NIS states, including Ukraine, have three main
encouragement of environmental considerations
into the process of reconstruction to ensure sustainable development;
development of institutional capacity
in the participating countries, including an efficient legal and
administrative framework, regulatory and enforcement mechanisms;
relief to regions where human health
or natural ecosystems are jeopardised by environmental hazards;
to promote local and international
Because of special interest shown by EU Member
States and the NIS Governments of the states bordering the EU
and Phare countries, the Cross Border Co-operation Programme focuses
on environment in the following areas
transfrontier nature of environmental
environmental degradation problems
caused by industrialisation and agricultural policy;
new environmental policy development;
pre-investment project development;
small-scale infrastructure projects.
3. TACIS AND OTHER
Co-ordination of programmes is done both at
a local (Ukraine) level and at a more strategic and policy level
from TACIS in Brussels. The 1996 Inter-state Environmental Action
programmes have an important identification element for subsequent
funding by International Financial Institutions (IFIs). The 1998
and 1999 Inter-state programmes will specifically refer to further
TACIS TA as an element of pre-investment development and appraisal.
There is still a tendency for the IFIs, in particular
the World Bank, to re-do appraisals to their own satisfaction.
At best this duplicates work already done by other donors, TACIS
included. Closer and better strategic co-ordination should reduce
this problem and improve synergy.
4. PARTNERSHIP AND
Article 63 of the PCA document covers environment
specifically. Given the brevity of the PCA document in general,
we feel that the range of environmental topics covered is comprehensive
and relevant to Ukraine/EU concerns, and they do provide a broad
framework of co-operation and direction for technical assistance.
More detailed priorities and actions have been developed in the
four year Indicative Programme and the annual Action, Inter-state,
and Cross Border strategy papers. For the future the PCA Co-operation
Councils and Committees will have a task of steering priorities
5. 1996 TACIS REGULATIONS
The 1996 regulations have had a significant
impact on the identification, approval and financing of environmental
projects. The current programs for Ukraine include the following
Strengthening the State Environmental
Inspectorate in the Ministry of Environment and Nuclear Safety.
Strengthening regional capacity for
industrial waste treatment and management.
Water treatment support for Mariupil.
Inter-state involving Ukraine:
Raising environmental awareness and
developing environmental media in the NIS and Mongolia.
Development of common environmental
policies in the NIS and Mongolia.
1995 Black Sea Environmental Programme.
Widening of the Environmental Action
Programme to the NIS and Mongolia.
Setting-up new Regional Environmental
Centres in Moldova, Russia, Georgia and Ukraine.
Raising public awareness, developing
environmental media, and resourcing good practice;
TACIS Regional Seas Programme (1997
The Cross Border Co-operation programme includes
Accident and emergency warning system
and monitoring, laboratory and information management for the
Danube basin (Ukraine and Moldova sections).
Carpathian transfrontier environmental
River Bug transboundary water quality
The 1998 Inter-state and CBC programmes are
currently under preparation as is the 1999 Action Programme for
In addition to these large scale programmes,
there are several small scale environmental projects under Bistro,
Tempus, Lien and Cross Border Co-operation facilities.
6. TACIS AS A
TACIS does attempt to create a real dialogue
and stimulate appropriate demands for technical assistance from
the Ukrainian side. This is relatively more effective and transparent
in the preparation of the National and Cross Border programmes,
whereas Inter-state developments appear to be driven by Brussels,
generally have no NIS counterparts (the CIS institutions being
irrelevant), and are often presented or discussed at a very late
stage. Obviously this has an adverse impact on initial ownership
and commitment from the Ukrainian side.
Invariably bureaucratic procedures exist on
both sides. The annual cycle of programme approval and the lengthy
tendering procedure is very frustrating for the Ukrainian authorities
and partner institutions. It does mean that some of the more immediate
needs cannot be addressed or satisfied by the mainstream TACIS
programmes, only by small scale project facilities which have
the capability of rapid response. These small scale facilities
are often inadequate in terms of finance and time available.
In general the management organisation and responsibilities
for the TACIS programme are inefficient, confusing, and far too
costly a burden on the budget as a whole. We understand that a
reorganisation is taking place in Brussels which aims to resolve
some of these management issues, and we await the practical results.
However, professional management resources should be concentrated
more in the field where decisions and actions have to be taken,
than in the centre.
8. COURT OF
We are certain that the Commission is addressing
the criticism and recommendations seriously. As far as improvement
in the local (i.e., Kiev) management of the TACIS programme is
concerned the resources in the EU Delegation in Kiev have been
strengthened. Soon after the Auditors' Report was prepared a National
Agency of Ukraine for Reconstruction and Development was created
and headed up by Roman Shpek. The agency took over the responsibility
for the co-ordination of international technical assistance. The
TACIS Co-ordinating Unit within this agency became fully staffed
and operational. In March of this year, the Partnership and Co-operation
Agreement with Ukraine came into force. The agency was also given
the responsibility for co-ordination of PCA implementation of
economic and social issues within the government network, and
changed its name to the National Agency of Ukraine for Development
and European Integration. Close and effective co-operation between
the Ukrainian authorities and TACIS is demonstrated by the fact
that the TACIS Action programmes for Ukraine for 1997 and 1998
were the first to be fully prepared and were presented to the
TACIS Committees for approval at the earliest opportunity, in
January of both years.
9. BEST VALUE
Since the start of the technical assistance
programmes and since independence, considerable know-how has been
transferred to Ukrainian counterparts. There is now significant
local expertise that could profitably be used in a contractual
capacity on TACIS projects, thereby increasing relevance, effectiveness
and value for money. Some relevant expertise also exists in Phare
countries which have gone through stages of the transformation
process much earlier than Ukraine. Having the prior experience
of similar central command economies, they are sometimes in a
better position to understand and sell the transformation process
necessary. It may be useful to extend the scope of TACISeligible
contractors to companies or organisations from the Phare countries.
In terms of ownership, see item 6 above.
We are aware of 53 NGOs active in the environmental
sphere in Ukraine and their number continues to grow. NGO capacity
building or development is specifically built-in to all the TACIS
environmental projects, and much of the practical project implementation
is channelled through these NGOs. Such NGOs are also supported
by other ODAs.
11. PHARE EXPERIENCE
See 9 above.
In terms of Cross Border Co-operation projects
for Ukraine, partners in the Phare countries are obligatory and
they bring their valuable experience to those projects.
12. THE ROLE
Many of the initiatives under the Inter-state
programmes are as a result of inputs by the EEA. They are actively
involved in the Black Sea Environmental Programme and Common Environmental
25 May 1998