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Lord Willoughby de Broke: My Lords, I apologise. I simply illustrate that French farmers pay absolutely no attention to the rules of the EU which bind everybody else. Why do we not, just occasionally, take a leaf out of their book? If the Government are listening, why does the MoD buy 98 per cent of its lamb abroad at a time when British sheep prices and British sheep farmers are at rock bottom? If the Government are listening why do they not do something about the scandal of the thousands of pigs imported into this country which are fed on meat and bone meal? If that material was fed to pigs in this country the farmer responsible would face a criminal prosecution.
If the Government are listening, will the Prime Minister, the Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Minister of Agriculture explain why they all voted for the stall-and-tether ban on pig production in this country but did absolutely nothing to ensure that government catering establishments used pig meat from British farms which conformed to our very much higher welfare standards?
Like the noble Lord, Lord Palmer, with whom I agree, I ask why, if the Government are listening, last Friday they talked out the Private Member's Bill on food labelling of the right honourable Member for Eddisbury which would have ensured that consumers in this country, if they so wished, could buy British and not Thai or Brazilian produce with a British flag stamped on it?
Finally, the noble Lord, Lord Sewel, vigorously pursued a point on which I am in agreement with him. I can do no better than quote the words of the noble Baroness in a Written Answer to my noble friend Lord Inglewood--
The noble Lord, Lord Sewel, underlined that point by pointing to the deficiencies of the common agricultural policy. What he did not do was to follow it through to its logical conclusion. We should get out of the common agricultural policy, which is a total disaster, as everyone agrees. If we did so we would save £4.5 billion a year in contributions to the European budget which we could then spend on our own agricultural sector. I agree with the noble Baroness, Lady Young of Old Scone, that some of that money could well be spent on environmental improvements and goods. We would have about £11 million a day to spend on the agricultural and environmental sectors if we were bold enough to leave the common agricultural policy.
The Countess of Mar: My Lords, I am grateful to my noble friend Lord Palmer for enabling us to air our concerns on this subject tonight. I express a desire that the Government will at last act as well as listen. We have heard repeated statements about the support provided to farmers by the Government, yet when the figures are analysed it is impossible not to compare the £1,000 per head of rescue funds which the Government claim to have spent on agricultural workers with their willingness to contemplate a subsidy package of £2 million to prevent the closure of the Longbridge car plant. That is equivalent to more than £14,000 per job in an industry where there is 300 per cent overproduction.
Subsidies, designed to encourage farmers to grow specific food crops and to breed livestock that were in short supply during and after the Second World War, have become like a fix to a drug addict. As with an addict, any excuse will be found to avoid confronting the truth. Subsidies in the form of the CAP are no longer the answer for the control of agricultural production, as the noble Lord, Lord Sewel, and others have so clearly indicated. What is required is a realistic system for pricing agricultural products--one that takes into account the fact that the whole community benefits from the way in which a farmer works his land and cares for his stock.
We are told that there is a surplus of many agricultural products. There may well be in the EU as a whole, but why do the latest government figures show that in the UK there is a food trade deficit of £8.5 billion? That compares with a food trade surplus of £5.7 billion in France. It is hard to comprehend the reason why it is our farmers who are told that they are overproducing when, at the same time, we seem to be forced to accept from abroad products that could well be produced here. Our average household spends only 11 per cent of its income on food; the French spend nearly 25 per cent.
Here I declare an interest as my husband and I have a small farm in Worcestershire where we produce milk and cheese from our goats and, in season, lamb from our small flock of Black Welsh Mountain sheep. All our products are sold locally. It is our aim to supply a choice of wholesome food at prices that provide us with a reasonable return and are considered to be reasonable by our customers. In addition to our work on the farm, my husband and I both have to work in other fields. We are now working harder than we have ever done simply to stand still.
It is the numerous small farmers, like my husband and me, who help to maintain the countryside so beloved of the townsfolk and visitors from abroad. Most of those farmers are now desperately struggling to survive. They have an inherent love of the land and an appreciation of its wider value that does not seem to be understood by their urban counterparts. They are proud and independent men and women who do not want to be reliant upon state handouts. What they need is practical help in those areas where they lack expertise. Marketing and market research are not skills that come naturally to farmers. The promotion of choice, wholesome, locally grown products is beyond their means. The socio-economic value of a successful agricultural sector to the population needs to be understood. I spoke about that in a recent debate. We also need the application of a large pinch of good sense by the bureaucrats who govern so much of our daily lives. I appreciate that this will not provide answers for all food producers and consumers, but it will help substantial numbers of them.
Lord Hardy of Wath: My Lords, I have no great expertise in agricultural economics. My first experience was as a small boy when a local farmer stopped his tractor and asked my friend and I whether we would like to earn half-a-crown by helping him to dig potatoes. So we helped him to pick potatoes; he then gave us sixpence. We pointed out that he had mentioned half-a-crown. He said, "I only asked whether you would like to earn half-a-crown, not that I would pay it".
I have represented farmers for a long time. While that does not mean that I am an expert, I am aware of the grave anxiety they feel. I share the deep unease, even sickness, which some experienced recently. Three factors underlie the problem; they have been identified. The ramifications of the strong pound have been spelt out by the noble Lord, Lord Williamson. I trust that the last points in his speech will receive much
The third factor--it is hurting many small farmers in south Yorkshire--is (if I may use the term without being patronising) the death of the peasant or cottage economy. In recent months, one of my friends has had to get rid of 5,000 hens because the little grocer shops which he serviced for a long time cannot compete with the supermarkets. A pig farm two or three miles away went bankrupt last month despite having spent £75,000 on capital equipment and improvements to comply with regulations in the United Kingdom.
An anxiety expressed to me at the weekend is that the estimates for the yield and returns for wheat and barley this year are likely to bring the arable sector into a state of unease. Even if American production is reduced, it seems possible that, unless the land is good, the yield and returns even with subsidy may border close to the cost of production. That does not bode well for that sector.
I share the view that farmers must win friends. I was horrified recently when I learned that one farmer in south Yorkshire proposes to pull down about a mile-and-a-half of hedgerow in order to improve production. We do not need that. Farmers do not need the hostility that such a destruction of the natural heritage would create. Farmers must continue to farm the land but also act, perhaps increasingly, as stewards of the British ecology. I believe that on this side of the House we have an obligation to press the case for such support as will maintain activity in rural Britain.
I was extremely anxious about the countryside and access proposals. I know how difficult are the experiences of farmers living close to conurbations. The nuisance of litter, damage and destruction can be utterly discouraging. I am pleased to note that Schedule 8 to the Bill has a prohibition on access by mechanically-powered vehicles. If farmers are to be assisted in the maintenance of their role as stewards, we shall have to ensure a more capable, comprehensive police service in rural Britain. Crime is not concentrated universally in the cities. Farmers often have unfortunate experience. Police resources must be extended further away from town centres.
I trust that my noble friend will take from the debate the serious anxiety about many sectors of agriculture. We need to see a more positive approach from the Ministry of Agriculture. At times I found it extremely bureaucratic as a constituency MP. The last case that I put before the ombudsman before I ceased to be an MP was resolved some months after I entered this House. I was pleased to see that we won our case--a case which should never have had to go to the ombudsman--and a local farmer received a substantial payment. That payment should have been made in the first place without the anxiety, anger and acrimony which developed.
In that regard I was distressed by the speed with which the Ministry of Agriculture sought to respond to the EU's proposals on field boundaries. It could have been more robust. I cannot envisage our French
Lord Rotherwick: My Lords, I have been reading the report on the rural economies from the Performance and Innovation Unit of the Cabinet Office. On page 5 it states, quite correctly, that in the late 1940s government,
Nowhere does the report raise any question about the security of our food supply. It is interesting to note that during the past few years in various parts of our tumultuous world the food supply has been severely curtailed or stopped altogether. Our current high quality food security is not immutable. Surely, the casual assumption that our high quality food sources are sufficient and safe for ever should not be taken for granted.
The net incomes of livestock farmers are running at 50 to 70 per cent of those of 1991. Mixed farmers are doing slightly better and only the incomes of cereal farmers are holding at around 1991 levels. However, average prices do not show the whole picture. I was a mixed farmer, but, sadly, I am now only a cereal farmer. Like the noble Lord, Lord Palmer, I began farming with about 17 farming staff, but now have a permanent staff of only three and I now farm considerably more hectarage.
In the past three months since December, the strength of the euro against the pound has fallen by about 15 per cent. I could have just about paid a notional rent in December, but today I could pay only 60 per cent of that. I believe that I am one of the top 25 per cent best performing farms. I shudder to think what the future is for the tenant farmers who pay rent.
Reports from the NFU and the Tenant Farmers' Association indicate that this year most of them will make a loss. Loss-making tenant farmers will do the same as many of the 20,000 farmers did last year--they will quit the industry, many of them taking nothing with them but their skill and expertise.
"The people" with whom the Government consult so assiduously want choice, high quality, and above all, cheap food. But are they getting it at the moment? Choice and cheap food, yes, but what about the quality of imported foods? As Joyce Quin told Stephen O'Brien last week in another place, we may not tell the consumers which of the products on sale are produced in other countries to welfare and hygiene standards well below those imposed by our own Government on our own farmers. We may not inspect incoming produce for dioxins, raw sewage or even BSE. We may not highlight organic produce from land that has undergone a conversion period of less than half that demanded here. That is particularly important as 80 per cent of such foods are imported.
Last week, I returned in the Eurostar from the Continent. The dinner menu was veal. It was certainly not grown in Britain because our animal husbandry standards make us virtually non-competitive. But what a lovely easy way to avoid having to offer British products; and, what is more, it is legal under European law.
Lord Walpole: My Lords, I thank my noble friend Lord Palmer for providing me with the opportunity of speaking today. I am not declaring an interest because I am a statistic. I have retired from farming. I shall be brief.
I have down in my name the European Communities Select Committee Report on Biodiversity in the European Union, which I hope will come before the House very soon. It is not irrelevant. I do not know which Minister will be answering that debate as the report is an environmental one. However, it includes agricultural and fishery topics in addition to planning, transportation and marine problems. I felt that the DETR would be the relevant department and that MAAF might not become involved. Therefore, in case there is no joined-up government on that day--and I hope that there will be--I felt that I should speak out today.
I do not want to talk about the problems of under-funding or over-production because far more well informed speakers have done or will do so in the debate. That is not to say that I do not have a personal understanding of, and a great sympathy for, the situation that pertains.
When we come out of the tunnel--and out of it we must come--farmers will have to realise that they are the custodians of our countryside. I know that many do, but not enough. That fact must also be recognised by the Government. Without government help, no farmer now or in the foreseeable future will be able to afford to do everything that is essential for the preservation of all the aspects of the countryside which many of us hold dear.
Lord Beaumont of Whitley: My Lords, there is no need for me to recapitulate the ills of British agriculture. The number of speakers in the debate, opened so ably by the noble Lord, Lord Palmer, is evidence of that. Nor shall I spend time on the short-term ameliorations that are needed. They have been spelt out by a number of speakers and the sooner they are provided the better, in particular help for the organic sector.
I want to concentrate on two points. The first is the immensity of the underlying situation and the second is the toughness of the measures needed. This is not a passing crisis limited to this country; it is a deep-seated, long-term world disaster. It started in this country before the last war, was interrupted by the war and its psychological aftermath, resumed now, and is doomed to continue and become worse indefinitely.
It is the result of unbridled free trade, the purpose of which, as my Liberal forebears rightly knew, was to produce cheap food for the urban poor. That was an admirable objective, but not at the expense of the destruction of the English farming industry and not at the expense of the rural countryside.
If there are those who believe that there can be a recognisable rural England, or Wales, or Scotland without the preservation and, indeed, the restoration of the farming population, they are in error. They have only to see the destruction of rural New England by the competition of the monocultures of the Middle West.
What is to be done? The tide must be turned by a major turnaround and by the abandonment of free trade. We are told that that would mean misery for the third world. That is not so. The protection of food security in all countries and the abandonment of the obscene ferrying of luxury foods over vast distances, consuming immense quantities of fuel, can only do good to everyone.
Earl Peel: My Lords, I am sorry to say that your Lordships do not have Sir Robert Peel; you have me instead! I take this opportunity to thank my noble friend Lord Palmer for introducing the debate. It is timely.
As noble Lords have quite rightly said, we face a very real crisis in the agriculture industry. One thing is abundantly clear: there is no easy solution. The issues are extremely complex and decision-making is difficult, not only on the farm but also at the Ministry of Agriculture. I believe that we must show sympathy for the noble Baroness and her ministry at this difficult time.
We have all witnessed personal tragedies. I, like other noble Lords, know one or two extremely sad cases, and we must not lose sight of or forget them. We have a duty to do whatever we possibly can. However, what can we do? The truth of the matter is that the industry is undergoing a major shake-up. Although it is tough to admit, I fear that it was inevitable. There are simply too many farmers producing too much food. Modern technology has taken its toll and farmers are, to an extent, the victims of their own success. Having said that, I deplore the attitude of some, and I do not like comments such as, "Oh, the Tories let the miners go to the wall; now we'll let the farmers go to the wall". That is disingenuous and I believe that it is also highly short-sighted.
On the other hand--and this has already been touched on--farmers must realise, as many do, that they have no divine right to subsidies, in whatever guise, any more than any other sector of society. Support through the public purse must be earned and respected. However, I turn to what I believe to be perhaps the real point of our debate today and the real challenge which faces the ministry. Whatever countryside we aspire to, it will all be worthless without cultivation, without livestock (think for one moment of the number of SSSIs that rely on livestock for their conservation and integrity), without management and without farming. Only farmers can deliver what we want and they can do so only if they receive a reasonable return on their capital and on their labour.
Therefore, like other noble Lords, I believe that it is incumbent on the Government to act under the agrimonetary compensation scheme to make allowances for what I might call the "weak euro". As my noble friend Lord Ferrers said, that scheme was designed specifically to cope with currency fluctuations. Our farmers really do believe--I think quite justifiably--that they deserve equal treatment with other European farmers and that they are being
As for the future, I believe that we shall see greater globalisation, a freer market and greater competition. Who would have thought, for example, that the flower-growing industry in the Isles of Scilly would now be threatened by flowers being flown in from Kenya? That is the level of competition with which we are having to contend. And we must face up to it. I am afraid that it will mean cost-cutting and a loss of manpower. It will probably mean larger farms, which I would very much regret. However, we must look at common welfare standards. We must look at labelling and certainly at better marketing. Compared to the French, I believe that we are particularly bad at that in this country.
However, it was with great joy that the other day I opened my local Darlington and Stockton Times and saw a photograph of my noble friend Lord Lindsay opening a new launch of Yorkshire lamb. I believe that that is exactly the kind of activity in which farmers in this country should participate more widely. We have already had reference to niche markets, and I believe that there are real opportunities in that direction.
On the question of less red tape, I shall believe that when I see it. I sincerely hope that there will be a greater emphasis on the environment. The CAP has been positively destructive in that regard and we need to see a greater percentage of support in that direction. However, I welcome the steps that the Minister has already taken. Yes, we are already seeing diversification and it will grow, but it will not be the panacea that some people believe. Ultimately, in the remote agricultural areas I believe that farming will still need to be a stable industry that maintains the socio-economic background of the countryside.
We all want to see a diverse, competitive agriculture sector with a much greater environmental commitment to producing healthy food. I have full confidence that, given the opportunity, our farmers can deliver that. However, reform of the CAP must continue. But, as my noble friend Lord Vinson said--and he was absolutely right--we must not forget what happened in America. America withdrew subsidies and its agriculture industry very nearly collapsed. It was derisory of the way that we ran ours, but it came along with huge dollops of money in order to prop up its own industry. Finally, therefore, we must always have that safety net. However, I believe that the composition and structure of the safety net present the real challenge to the Government and to the EU.
The Earl of Carnarvon: My Lords, I congratulate my noble friend Lord Palmer on introducing this very important debate. I must declare an interest as a farmer in north-west Hampshire and as a former chairman of the Agricultural and Food Research Council.
A recent survey of 30 small and medium-sized abattoirs found that 26 expected to close down, three of them in the week of the survey. That was a matter referred to by the right reverend Prelate the Bishop of Hereford. Large abattoirs claim that payment on a headage basis would mean higher costs for them and would make them less competitive on a European scale. That may be true, but the current situation is forcing small plants out of business.
That is of vital importance for a number of reasons. The British livestock sector is suffering from severe recession, especially in pig production, as we have already heard today. While our animal welfare standards and other regulations ensure that our costs are higher than any of our competitors, the strength of sterling enables imports to force down prices. Therefore, the only way that our industry can survive is to produce high quality, organic or added value products that can sell for a premium, especially through farm shops, as the noble Countess, Lady Mar, said, and local outlets and farmers' markets. That is totally impossible without small local abattoirs, as the high throughput centralised plants cannot keep individual carcasses separate.
I turn to the question of sick and injured animals. Without local abattoirs, or knackers' yards, what can a farmer do with fallen stock? At present the hunt kennel is the only means of disposal. If hunting ceased, what then? He cannot shoot the animal and bury the carcass; that is illegal. It is essential to keep open rural abattoirs to prevent unnecessary suffering of farm animals. The rate at which small abattoirs are closing down means that immediate government action is imperative.
Livestock numbers in Hampshire have been falling for years. By the end of this year there may be fewer than 200 dairy herds left in Hampshire. I know that the problem with statistics is that they are always out of date, but at least 18 dairy herds in Hampshire were sold last year and more since. Judging by the notices of dispersal sales in Farmers Weekly, there are many more to come in the near future. They are not small-scale, out-of-date enterprises. Many of them are large, well run herds of up to 200 cows or more.
Beef and sheep farming is hardly more profitable. While beef farmers are recovering slowly from the BSE crisis, sheep farmers have experienced two years of poor returns, with prices only now rising from very depressed levels. The result is that sheep numbers have fallen in that area and many flocks have been sold. I buy approximately 500 North Country Mule ewe lambs each year. In 1996 they cost £74 a head; last year I bought them for £29 a head. Therefore, the effect on the hill farmers from whom I buy must be terrible.
The loss of livestock will have a dramatic effect on the landscape, as will other changes. Poor land will cease to be farmed as it is entered into agri-environmental schemes or set-aside. Even the biggest and most efficient farms are not immune to financial pressures. One agri-business farming some 13,000 acres laid off three men recently by moving away from ploughing towards a minimal cultivation technique.
I cannot predict the outcome, but if all agree to such a course of action, 6,500 acres of set-aside in a relatively small area of Hampshire, Wiltshire and Berkshire would certainly have a major impact upon the landscape. I am sure that the noble Baroness, Lady Young, would be extremely worried about that, as she would be about the employment position.
An accountant specialising in agriculture in Hampshire has said that the reserves of many farms are now exhausted and without profits undoubtedly some will be forced out. The current recession is the most severe to hit farming, and I have been farming for over 50 years. If it does not improve soon, it will have the most dramatic impact upon the countryside, something to which the noble Lord, Lord Sewel, referred. And I am extremely worried also about the economic, environmental and social consequences.
Lord Selsdon: My Lords, your Lordships will be happy to know that it is half-time and I would like to make a half-time speech. To me, this is quite a remarkable day. I thought that there might be 10 or 12 speakers. Before this date, when I spoke to the noble Lord, Lord Palmer, I said that I would like to talk about animals and economics because for much of my life I have dealt with the economics of food and marketing and when I worked for the Midland Bank, we were called the "farmers' bank".
But, in a way, there is a message which goes out from this House today. It says that we are right behind the farming industry at this time. If we can let the farmers know, by communicating the contents of the speeches today, that we shall use all our endeavours and our best efforts to persuade the public sector, governments and international agencies that we must have a viable agriculture industry in the future, then that message does us much good.
Those of us who are meant to be banking and economic people do not trust government figures; we never have. So taking the government figures on all aspects of the industry, I have over the past two weeks done my own research. The figures always say that one year is not comparable with the last. With that in mind I revisited, by phone and in other ways, areas of land which my family used to farm, totally uneconomically, in Dorset, Sussex, Hampshire, Berkshire and Wiltshire. We were disastrous farmers.
My grandfather, who accustomed me to getting up in the morning to milk the cattle, said that he would never dismiss anyone whose family had worked on the land. The land had no value other than the animals and the people it supported. If I recall correctly, we have 18 million hectares of land. We have on that land something like 11 million cattle, 40 million sheep, 8 million pigs, 140 million fowl and 400,000 horses--the same as in Australia, I believe--added to which there is other livestock.
Why is that? One always remembers the VAT man and the Customs and Excise man--the dreaded Excise man who destroyed the ability of Cornish farmers to make a little bit of extra money on the side by importing French brandy in order to subsidise their farms. But the most deadly man of all was the man from the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. He had the power to enter your land under the protection of the bulls in service Act, the dangerous weeds Act or the Colorado beetle Act. It is bureaucracy which has destroyed grade 3 people.
A good friend of mine and of the noble Lord who has been so wonderful in opening this debate once said to me, "Agricultural land is uneconomic" and I said, "But why is it so highly priced? Why is it that today it has £60 billion of value? Why has the price of land remained so high when the economics of it are so wrong?" He said, "Well, you see, agricultural land is only 50 per cent mortgaged but if you look at the return it ought to have, it would be 100 per cent mortgaged".
It is heavily mortgaged but there is still an asset there. I know not why the price of land is so high but my friend gave me a lovely phrase which I have never forgotten--pride of ownership. In my 49 telephone calls to people, I asked, "Why are you still in agriculture?" They replied, "My father was. I am". There are 350,000 families--husbands, spouses and partners--who love the land and love their animals. In a way, perhaps, one could say that they are foolish but maybe they are wise because suddenly, into the breach, comes the decision that the whole of the south of England is to be covered with houses. I declare an interest because I work for a contractor. But we are after brownfield land. Our countryside is an asset that has no value; it is invaluable. If your Lordships' House supports all that today, we may get somewhere.
In his introduction, my noble friend said that the Prime Minister had pledged to sit down with the farming industry to tackle the immediate crisis. I thought he had already done that on 1st February, in a speech to the NFU because he said:
So far there has been a great deal of talk from officials but there is nothing yet on offer. We have all heard that time is running out. I would hate to see the Government react with too little and too late, because, by then, the industry really will have been destroyed.
We demanded high welfare standards. The industry complied with that request at considerable cost to itself. I should not wish to see it now forced to abandon the improved welfare standards which we fought so hard to place upon it.
On labelling, I still find that confusing. The country of origin is often difficult to identify. We really must have clear labelling so that consumers are left in no doubt as to where their food comes from. British shoppers do care. But they cannot make informed choices when labelling is less than helpful as to the country of origin. Many people to whom I have spoken are willing to pay a little more in the knowledge that pig and poultry products are produced to a high welfare standard.
We all have a part to play in preserving our own agriculture, which has already done so much to improve its own farm animal welfare. Farm prices are at rock bottom and they show no sign at present of improving. But the plight of farmers is not reflected in the prices that we pay. I hope that the Government will start to turn their promises into action. But the time for that to be done is now. The future may well be too late.
Another matter of concern to veterinarians and farmers alike is the draft regulations which are the work of the Joint Food Safety and Standards Group. Those regulations will soon be submitted to Ministers for signature. I spoke to an independent nutrition and legislation consultant retained by the George Group about Regulation 13. That regulation seeks to ban all types of feed additive mixtures, unless they are incorporated into feeds.
That has been around since 1970 but has been circumvented or ignored by practically all the 15 countries within the EU, and for good reason too. Its implications for animal welfare are extremely worrying. One example is hypomagnesemia. In cattle that is grass staggers or tetany. It is a rare condition these days because farmers add magnesium salts to the drinking water every day. This method ensures that they get their daily intake of magnesium. Should farmers not be able to carry on adding this mineral daily in water, the result could well be death. Cattle and sheep on extensive grazing cannot obtain sufficient micronutrients only from grass to meet their requirements.
The implementation of Regulation 13 will also cause problems in pigs and poultry. With the demise of "in-feed" antibiotics for growth promotion, there has been much more use of vitamin boosts in times of increased stress. Other companion animals are also affected. As we know, Europe already circumvents that regulation, but if we adopt it we will be adopting all sorts of welfare problems for ourselves because I believe that
The Earl of Selborne: My Lords, like so many others, I must declare an interest as a farmer and, perhaps unusually, I am chairman of the Agricultural Mortgage Corporation with a particular interest in that respect. Being in the second half of the speakers' list, there is no need for me to repeat the causes of the problems facing UK agriculture. Anyway, the noble Lord, Lord Palmer, who initiated the debate so effectively, listed the lot. So we do not need to worry any more about the issues. We have identified them as an overvalued pound, over-regulation, historically low commodity prices, high welfare standards in this country and an inappropriate common agricultural policy.
We need to move on in this debate--and many speakers have done so--towards solutions. In his speech the noble Lord, Lord Palmer, drew attention to an issue to which UK agriculture has to address itself with, one hopes, government help; namely, why is it that we face higher input costs? He mentioned Spanish agrichemicals and continental combines. I could mention many others. If I ordered A1 semen from a named bull that would cost me a lot more than it would cost in Australia. Do not ask me why, but that is true. We know about right-hand drive vehicles in this country, but we have never worked out how on earth it is that we allow ourselves to pay so much more for them. Put together, this amounts to extremely incompetent consumer buying by the agriculture industry. I know that the manufacturers blame the Government, the Government blame the manufacturers and the farmers blame everyone else. We need to get together and sort it out for ourselves. It is a matter which agriculture needs to address. If it finds a problem with regulations it will have a strong case to go to the Government.
But we are locked into a high-cost farming system whereas by now we should have tried to devise a strategy for the industry which recognised lower commodity prices. As so many speakers have said, we are locked into a common agricultural policy which
Clearly, the Government can have a hand in this. But when we come ultimately to recognise, as speaker after speaker has done, that we have rightly imposed on ourselves higher welfare standards, we have recognised that it is an obligation on all farmers to produce more than just food, although that remains our main product. We must therefore think in terms of rewarding those who produce bio-diversity, nature conservation as well as animal welfare and high food quality.
As the noble Baroness, Lady Wharton, said, we need to ensure that the consumer is aware of these advantages and will pay for them. I do not believe that labelling by government regulation achieves that. It is another bureaucracy. It tends to lead to confusion and it is not a very good way of communicating risk or even communicating market attributes.
The problem is that if labelling is government regulated--or worse, EC regulated--people simply do not believe it. There is a good case for privatisation, which I recommend to new Labour. Why do we not have a kite mark scheme owned by consumers or promoted by an independent organisation, not to please the Government or farmers themselves because no one will believe it, but an organisation which tries to give a nominal score to these attributes which we value: bio-diversity, animal welfare, food safety and quality? It would be difficult to get all these together and rated out of a score of 10. Whoever chaired that organisation would have the most appalling difficulty.
I know that organic farmers would treat such a scheme with grave suspicion because it might suggest that other people could produce to the same level of conservation merit as they do, and of course they could. That is why the organic people will be worried. I would very much like to see such a scheme. I hope that it would be recognised that it was the agricultural industry which was supporting it, but not leading it, trying to meet the issues that everyone in the Chamber has recognised.
We have put ourselves into a bind with high cost systems. We are producing far better products than other countries. Our food quality is superb and yet the consumer, even the Government when they are the buyer for the Ministry of Defence, do not seem to recognise that. It is up to us to tell them how they should recognise it.
Baroness Strange: My Lords, we are all particularly grateful to my noble friend Lord Palmer for initiating this debate on a subject which is not only crucial to our countryside as we know it, but also crucial to the hearts
Your Lordships will know the old story of the man who created a beautiful garden from a wilderness, all with his own hands. One evening he was standing admiring its beauty when the local minister came by and admired it, too. The gardener said, "Ay, I've made a grand job of it." The minister reminded him that he must also give thanks to the Almighty. "Ay", said the gardener, "but it was a fair mess when He had it all His own way." So it is with Britain, with our landscape. Much of its beauty is due to the people who have protected it, cared for it, and worked it. We have much to thank farmers for.
Your Lordships have already covered all the other issues--cows, sheep, hens, arable farming and crops, small abattoirs and the fact that while costs, rents, electricity, fuel, machines and wages have all gone up, prices have persistently gone down. So I shall talk just a little about pigs. Like my noble friend Lady Wharton and others, your Lordships may have noticed the charming ladies who inhabit, hock deep, a sty of straw in Parliament Square. They have outside two large notices, "Save our bacon" and "Does Blair care?" Whether the right honourable gentleman the Prime Minister does, or does not, care for the lifestyle of pigs, I do not know. But I do know that he was meeting pig farmers today and so I am cautiously optimistic. Perhaps he does care. I know that I care.
Beside the luxurious straw bedding there is what at first sight appears to be an instrument of torture, a sort of iron maiden. It is a very small iron cage into which some pigs on the Continent are tied up so they cannot move. Many foreign pigs are kept in inhumane conditions. To add insult to injury, their end product is subsidised by their governments.
British pigs lead happier lives, but their owners are not subsidised. This demonstration is to help British pig farmers to survive. Many of them have not. I know that I have no wish to eat bacon that has been produced by torturing animals. I am sure that many people will feel the same. If the pig has had a contented, happy life, it is rather different.
I am sure that your Lordships will be glad to know that no one is going to eat those two beautiful large white Tamworth cross pigs, Cherry and Winnie, who have been living in Parliament Square. They are going to a special children's farm where they can be played with and stroked every day. If only there could be a happy ending for all British farmers--including pig farmers--and for our countryside which we all love. I hope that someone in the Government is caring about our agriculture now.
Lord Bruce of Donington: My Lords, this has been a most remarkable debate; one more unique than any I have experienced so far. It is clear from the speeches made this afternoon that the CAP has no friends whatever. No one has spoken favourably of it. Three or four noble Lords have wished that it would go away
There are many good reasons for that. One important reason was given by the noble Lord, Lord Vinson, who is temporarily not in his place. He pointed out that agricultural commodities are different from other manufactures in that they comprise animals and plants; entities with life in them which have their own independent rhythm. They cannot be parked on the tarmac like Ford cars if they cannot be sold. They have a rhythm of their own; one allied to that of nature or which is peculiar to a particular species. In the UK, at least, they live on varying types of land.
We must therefore treat agriculture completely differently. It is high time that we said so. There is no need to perpetuate the myth that the common agricultural policy is the be-all and end-all of human existence. It may well be on the Continent, to the extent that it was devised by Germany and France in a deal ultimately consummated in the Elysee Treaty of 1963, in which France agreed to support Germany on certain conditions and Germany agreed to support France. In any case, they would consult together before each Council meeting. We all know that. We all know too the corruption that has occurred, not only at Commission level, but also in the way in which individual political parties in France and Germany have entered into corrupt arrangements in order to finance themselves.
The answer really is simple and can be put within the time limits that we are set. It is clear that we must pay special attention to agriculture. It cannot be treated like any ordinary run of the mill manufacturing or productive industry. All we need to do is to repatriate to our own country any aid and guidance which we need. We are the people who know the climatic conditions, types of animals and variables of nature as they apply to us. Our governments, if they are responsive, can deal with the matter themselves, subject to the correction of another place and indeed ourselves; subject to certain restrictions and the public at large. Why not repatriate the whole business and let us deal with the problem ourselves? I am completely at one with those of my colleagues who say that the agriculture industry must exercise more initiative than it is able to, or is inclined to, at the present time.
Agriculturists must help themselves. There can be no doubt about that. But in agriculture--and I am talking only of agriculture--one must be free of eternal regulation. Today I have been through parts of the European budget for the year 2000; a document of 1,801 pages, which is beyond the capacity of any government Minister, or indeed, his civil servants, to look at. We all know perfectly well of the regulatory regime imposed on us even without parliamentary scrutiny due, if noble Lords have read the comitology report, to the existence of completely independent committees in Brussels under the chairmanship of the Commission, whose regulations have gone directly
Lord Laird: My Lords, I am most grateful for this opportunity to draw attention to the dreadful state of the agriculture industry in Northern Ireland. I join those who salute my noble friend Lord Palmer for initiating the debate. My noble friend Lord Molyneaux of Killead correctly and with great clarity drew attention on Monday night to the state of the farming industry in Northern Ireland. I have no wish to waste time going over the same ground except to place the Province in context.
The agricultural food industry is three times more important to the economy of Northern Ireland than it is to the United Kingdom as a whole. In 1999, farm incomes fell in real terms by 23 per cent--considerably more than in the rest of the United Kingdom. Farmers in a small Province now owe over £520 million to the bank and that figure continues to grow. So we know only too well the problem, but what can we do at this stage?
I understand why the Government believe that any measures can be taken only on a total UK basis and not just for Northern Ireland, even if the Province's burden is proportionately much worse. The Ulster Farmers' Union has operated a campaign of awareness of the difficulties and it has highlighted several areas for particular support. I have little doubt that the Government understand the serious position of the farming industry and that a programme of measures is currently being prepared. I look forward to hearing about assistance for the pig industry which, as we all know, is on its knees. An undertaking should be given that all the EU agrimonetary compensation available in the year 2000 will be energetically sought. A positive outcome could be achieved by the consideration of "low incidence" BSE status for Northern Ireland.
Those are important measures, but by their very nature they are short-term measures. The farming industry is the oldest of industries, rooted in all parts of the country and in everyone's life. But the time has come for a more radical reappraisal. A pact must be made between the industry and the Government, each with a major part to play. We must save agriculture but not at the cost of saving all the farmers. Too many have outdated methods of operation in which their farms are considered as a way of life and not as businesses, as they should be.
Farmers, particularly those in Northern Ireland, must be encouraged to look at what they do, how they do it and why. A hard look by any business person when considering the future is vital. If that suggests to him that massive changes must be made, even to the extent of leaving farming, then so be it. I fully understand that by the nature of agriculture as a capital intensive industry, change is slow, and that is where the Government have their part to play. Not so
We must consider, for example, a compensation scheme for early retirement and for a change of direction. Consideration should be given to methods of relieving loan debt or helping with interest payments. There should be a total refocusing programme to allow the farming community time to reflect and collectively consider the future. If we want farmers to be the stewards of the countryside, fine. But it must be on a business basis. I accept that those will be highly expensive schemes and that they can work only alongside short-term measures such as those discussed in your Lordships' House today, but if we do not grasp the mettle now and simply continue to throw short-term money at the problem, the expense will be just as great and we shall be debating the topic again in 10 years' time. A pact should be made that if the Government put in place schemes and appropriate funding, the farming industry will take steps to change and to reposition itself.
The Duke of Montrose: My Lords, those involved in agriculture pursue their trade with an obsession second to none, so it is not surprising to find that the industry has shown an increase in productivity which amounts to 3.5 per cent over the past 25 years. For most industries that would be sufficient to keep them economically viable and successful, but for farming that is not the case.
The Government tell us that they have devolved agriculture to the Scottish Parliament, so I am delighted that this debate has been led by the noble Lord, Lord Palmer, and that various other Scots are speaking. At the moment the core problem of agriculture is in our relationship with Europe. The United Kingdom is the forum in which such problems have to be settled, so the Scots will continue to bring their representations to your Lordships' House.
Many times we have heard of the dismal figures that the Government produced last November on farm incomes, but I want to mention the Scottish ones in particular. They show, for example, that in 1998 the average dairy farm had a net income of £4,400, which was a drop of 68 per cent on the previous year. In calculating income for 1999, it is estimated that there was a further 8 per cent drop. Most other sectors experienced similar problems.
The noble Lord, Lord Palmer, and other noble Lords have drawn your Lordships' attention to the root of the problem, which is the strength of sterling against the euro. I believe your Lordships understand the mechanism by which that affects so many aspects of agriculture. From July 1993, when the conversion was calculated using green pounds, to the present day, the value of the pound has increased by 52 per cent. In regard to the price of milk, mentioned by my noble
I agree with the noble Lord, Lord Sewel, and other noble Lords that we must address the long term, but I am anxious that we should look at the short-term measures required. We have heard much about the financial difficulties of even some of the large producers who are preparing to sell up. The noble Earl, Lord Carnarvon, spoke of Hampshire. The south-west region of Scotland accounts for 85 per cent of the dairy farms in Scotland and it is served by markets at Carlisle, Ayr and Castle Douglas. The market at Carlisle recently had 23 pedigree herds booked for sale, whereas normally at this time of the year it would expect to have only six. The owners of those herds have been prepared to put in the time and the effort to carry out the cataloguing, the clipping, the cleaning and the preparation of their animals. The market estimates that there is an equal number of farmers who will simply send their herds for slaughter. In Ayrshire it is anticipated that another 30 herds will go and there are similar stories from other parts of Scotland. Adding to the frustration is the fact that word is going around that the Lockerbie creamery is buying in milk from France at 11p a litre.
From the west coast and the island creameries, which exist merely to serve their local communities, a different story emerges. Those at Bute and Campbeltown are giving cause for concern. The local agricultural adviser believes that the creamery on Islay has ceased to be viable and that will spell the end of the seven herds that currently supply it.
Those island farmers have cost structures that are hard for most other areas to imagine and they have not been helped by a government policy of having a blanket fuel price escalator applied across the country. The cost of running a reasonable agricultural transport lorry is now about 50p a mile for fuel alone. The transport charge for taking a lorry from Stirling to one of the islands with a load of hay is £800, which, with one of the best large-scale hauliers, works out at £50 a tonne on top of the cost of the hay.
Farmers in that area have experienced an additional frustration in that one of the life-belts that they were offered was the agricultural business improvement scheme. Most farmers who wish to stay in business are prepared to clutch at anything that is offered. Farmers completed the required resource audit, carried out all the work to meet the conditions of the scheme and put in 9,616 applications. By the time the rural affairs department had paid out 5,337 such applications the money had run out, so half of them were left without any recompense for their efforts. A similar pattern is emerging under the countryside premium scheme. I believe that out of those who have applied in Dumfries none has gained approval.
Lord Northbourne: My Lords, I am most grateful to the noble Lord, Lord Palmer, for introducing this debate. Many noble Lords have spoken of the plight of farmers so I shall not speak on that subject. Judging by an Answer that the Minister gave on 9th February, it seems to me that the Government's policy is to say to farmers that their problems can be solved by increasing efficiency. I am not entirely convinced that that is a realistic assessment. We already have one of the most efficient agricultural industries in the world.
I want to address the possibility that we face an unavoidable, real agricultural recession of the nature that we endured in the 1920s and 1930s. An agricultural recession does not lead to increased efficiency. As some noble Lords have indicated is beginning to happen it leads to retrenchment; it leads to battening down the hatches, as the noble Baroness, Lady Wharton, said; it leads to dereliction of land and rusting machinery; it leads to a flight of enterprise and skill from the land; and it leads to a flight of capital from the land.
That happened in the 1920s and 1930s and when the war started it was a struggle to get the land back into production. In those days I was 14. I remember the situation. My father was in the forefront of the battle to get the Kentish agriculture industry back to producing the food that the nation needed. There was a shortage of machinery and crop storage. More importantly, there was a shortage of people with the skills to carry out the job. At least at that time the land was still available. The land had been allowed to turn into grazing. I remember a cousin of mine who farmed his 2,000 or 3,000 acres by buying a pony and ranching the land. The noble Lord, Lord Selsdon, referred to the importance of the land.
If we have an agricultural recession today we face a new threat of the irreversible loss of agricultural land, which is one of the nation's most valuable assets. We have superb agricultural land, some of the best in the world. Today, unlike the situation in the 1930s, the general economy is booming. There are many competing demands for land. And land lost to housing, roads, industry and theme parks to mention but a few, is land lost to food production forever.
At this point I disagree with the noble Lord, Lord Sewel; I do not believe that this country will never need food produced at home again. That is what was thought in the 1920s and 1930s. The Americans and the Canadians were "mining" the Prairies for cheap
We may not have a world war; we can never foresee what will happen. But I can perhaps give one statistic which may suggest the reality of the possibility that the production of our agricultural land may one day again become crucial. In October last year the world's population reached 6 billion. It has doubled since 1960. It could easily double again in the next 40 years; that is, another 6 billion mouths to feed in the world. Over 1 billion today are between the ages of 15 and 24; that is, just reaching the peak child-bearing years.
The potential consequences of population growth are staggering. The noble Lord, Lord Oxburgh, the Rector of Imperial College--who unfortunately cannot be in his place today because he is abroad--said in 1998:
The Earl of Shrewsbury: My Lords, I too congratulate the noble Lord, Lord Palmer, for securing this most important debate. I declare an interest as a farmer and landowner, and as president of the Staffordshire and Birmingham Agricultural Society, which has a wonderful show at the end of May this year. It is our 200th anniversary and I hope that your Lordships will attend in large numbers.
As one who cares deeply about the countryside and its general well-being, it saddens me to witness the steady decline of agriculture. I believe that agriculture is in deep depression at the moment. It is an industry which is experiencing a depression which many believe to be as bad or perhaps even worse than the great depression of the 1930s when I remember my father telling me that he paid tenant farmers 30 shillings an acre just to keep the land going.
It is unprecedented to see every sector of agriculture and horticulture in such steep decline. It is unprecedented to witness month by month reports of rising numbers of farmers leaving the land; of young people deciding not to follow their parents into the industry; of divorces; of suicides; and we have not yet seen the peak of this tragedy.
Tell that to the farmer's wife who has just found her husband hanging from a beam in the barn because he could not face the future. Tell that to a farm worker who has just lost his job. Explain that to the stockman who has built up a prime pedigree herd over the course of his lifetime, only to see it destroyed for compensation a fraction of its true value. Tell that to the agricultural engineer who has been forced to close his business. The list of tragedies is endless, and even worse in the hills and the less-favoured areas.
I believe that the report paints an inaccurate picture of rural well-being. It states that, in general, levels of unemployment are lower in rural areas than in urban areas. But what it fails to point out are the vast numbers of people who use country villages as dormitories. Their numbers distort the true picture. Many villages are ghost towns during the week except for the evenings, and yet the inhabitants do not use the village shop, if indeed one exists any longer; they are generally multi-vehicle families who travel to supermarkets. Those of us who live and work in rural areas know full well the true picture. It is all very well for the No. 10 spinmasters to gloss over the fact. What they would wish us to believe is a gross distortion of the true situation.
I should like to touch briefly on the pig industry, for it is suffering pain far worse than the other sectors of agriculture. The industry is in freefall. What is needed is a level playing field. The factors which have hit the industry are many and varied; the strength of sterling; the BSE crisis; welfare issues and requirements which our EU colleagues are not restricted by; unfair treatment by supermarkets and also a glut of pigmeat throughout Europe. All those are villains in the scheme of things.
The noble Baroness, Lady Hayman, kindly replied to a number of Written Questions which I tabled recently, and I am grateful for her responses. The recent letter from John Godfrey, chairman of the National Pig Association, tells me,
I suggest to the noble Baroness that many of the current problems stem from cheap imported pigmeat from our EU partners, where their welfare standards are woefully below those practised in this country. It seems ridiculous to me that pig farmers in this country must pay for the disposal of pig offal, even though dedicated pig abattoirs sell processed pig offal to EU
Finally, honest labelling: I understand that imported pigs are processed in this country and many of the products are then labelled as British. That cannot be right when such products are often produced in systems which practise welfare regimes of a far lower standard than those practised in this country. It is pulling the wool over the consumers' eyes.
We should be giving every possible encouragement to our farmers, who are the best farmers in the world. The demise of the agricultural industry in this country will have lasting and long-term effects both on the countryside and on the balance of payments. To take no positive action now will reap a sad and expensive harvest in 10 years' time. That would be short-sighted in the extreme.
Agriculture matters more to the economy of the south-west where we live and farm than any other region. At over £1 billion, the value of agriculture output contributes 2.5 per cent of regional GDP--twice the average for other English regions--while the industry employs some 70,000 people, which is 2.3 per cent of regional employment; again, the highest for any English region. However, in the more rural parts of the region such as north Cornwall, west Devon and Exmoor, the significance of agriculture to the rural economy is even greater. For example, in rural Devon and Exmoor, 14.4 per cent of the workforce is employed in agriculture, which is three times the EU average.
On his recent visit to the south-west, the Prime Minister acknowledged what he called "pockets of deprivation" in the rural economy--and they certainly exist. On market days in towns like Holsworthy, Launceston and South Molton, where we live, so many businesses depend on the surrounding farms that you can almost smell the depression in the air.
But there is also an undercurrent of deprivation which runs through the rural economy throughout the region. This is concentrated among the indigenous country people--those who not only live in the countryside but earn their living there. This is where the effects of the crisis in agriculture have been felt most severely.
If all country people are to share in rural prosperity, which appears to be the Prime Minister's objective, it has to mean that resources must be concentrated, whether for jobs, housing, services or economic
That is why assistance for agriculture, both short-term and long-term, is so important. It is not only a question of keeping farmers going so that they can continue to act as rather badly paid landscape gardeners. In the more rural areas especially, farming is still the mainspring of the rural economy, with at least one job off the farm for every job on the farm. On that basis, almost 30 per cent of the jobs in my part of north Devon depend on agriculture. And bear in mind that many of the other 70 per cent are people who may live in the countryside but who work in a town or city and who are really part of the urban economy. So in terms of the genuine rural economy, farming becomes even more dominant.
The Prime Minister acknowledged the seriousness of the crisis in farming and conceded that the countryside without agriculture would be a contradiction in terms. Yet that is precisely what we now face. Farming incomes have fallen by 70 per cent over the past two years. Last year the average hill farmer had a net income, according to the Government's own figures, of only £4,500 as a reward for his own and his wife's labours. Assuming, conservatively, that they both work a 60-hour week, that gives them an hourly rate of pay of 72p. Just imagine if one's own net income had fallen by 70 per cent over the past two years. That is not a pretty thought, but that is the reality of farming as it exists at the moment. Of course we need a long-term plan for the recovery and regeneration of our agriculture, but a long-term plan is a fat lot of good if you cannot get through the short term. That is where the Government must help, without further delay.
I make no apology whatsoever for swiftly repeating three important points. First, the Government must apply for the full amount of the agrimonetary compensation which is available from the EU and match it in full so as to offset some of the huge damage inflicted by the strength of the pound. Certainly, as the noble Lord, Lord Palmer, who introduced this most important debate and for which I thank him, said, in the early 1990s when German and French currencies were very strong, those countries took full advantage of the compensation available from Brussels. Secondly, the Government must lift that awful burden of the offal tax on the pig farmers. Thirdly, they must implement the key recommendations of the red-tape review.
This will not be enough to transform the agricultural economy, but it might make that vital difference between survival and extinction for many farm businesses, and it would send a signal to the countryside that this is a Government who deal in actions as well as words.
I have to say this, although so many other noble Lords have already said it. Without short-term aid to tide over farming and to inspire confidence in the future, the damage to the rural economy and to our rural culture from what would amount to agricultural meltdown could be irreversible.
The Earl of Sandwich: My Lords, I should like to thank my noble friend, who has again done us all a great service by putting down this debate to remind Her Majesty's Government of the very existence of farmers who, as we have heard from many noble Lords, are different. I believe that the Minister accepts that because she is sensitive to the needs of rural areas. It was also cheering for farmers in the south west to see the Prime Minister briefly come out and appear to accept their point of view. But it has to be accepted that the culture from which most Ministers and policy-makers come is mainly urban. For many MPs of all parties, farmers are simply another demanding section of society, grazing pigs in Parliament Square. They do not recognise that farmers make up the basics of our society, especially in the south west.
Surely the government must give the taxpayers, both urban and rural, much more vision of what they are aiming for in five years' time. This Government have the luxury of at least thinking that they can look forward to that period of time. But they must not waste that time. They must show that on a number of fronts they are determined to ensure that our farmers are valued and given a framework for the future. Fortunately. there are rural MPs, like David Drew, for example, who are deeply concerned about wider questions such as the food chain and the neglect of the rural economy as a whole. The Government will have to satisfy them.
We have already heard of a number of ways in which the Government could provide the confidence that is needed. The first is, of course, the green pound, mentioned principally by the noble Lord, Lord Williamson of Horton. But here is a typical example of Euro-bounty: in November you will lose 13 per cent on your already agreed arable area payment, but you will get a cheque some time in February to make up the difference. Why should the farmer subsidise the European Union in the interim period? We all hope that the Government will meet the April Fool's Day deadline.
Secondly, unnecessary burdens should be removed from the livestock industry, be they legal, tax, or administrative. The fate of 17 per cent of small abattoirs should be enough to prove that. There are still things that must be done in the wake of BSE to reduce the absurd cost of the Meat Hygiene Service. I have heard of a case in Sussex where five hygiene inspectors were needed to oversee three slaughtermen.
Can the Minister say anything about the future of the OTMS scheme and the 560 kilo weight limit, which is literally pushing more and more livestock farmers in the south west towards insolvency because of the fall in the value of their assets? This is important in that region, which has a high proportion of cattle, and is a particular problem in Dorset, where there is a greater density of dairy cows than almost anywhere else. An increase in compensation from 50p to, say, 60p or 65p per kilo would substantially improve the value of cows and hence the livelihood of dairy farmers at this critical
Thirdly, the future direction of environmental support should be spelled out. The Government are already doing this and I welcome this year's doubling of the countryside stewardship schemes with their planned fourfold increase from £29 million to £126 million over the next seven years. This also gives some indication of where the Government want to go with Agenda 2000. That is to be welcomed.
Again, the Government have listened to concerns about organic support. When speaking to one or two farming friends, I had the impression that the organic movement will attract many more mainstream farmers if it can demonstrate more integrity and less emotion. From the political point of view, the organic movement is on to a winner. It neatly combines much of the urban vision of the countryside as a wholesome place where rosy-cheeked folk produce healthy apples and sell cheese in farmers' markets on the one side, and the rural necessities of finding an alternative income, adding value and improving the landscape through such schemes as countryside stewardship on the other. Who could quarrel with that?
However, there is still a suspicion that more standards inevitably lead to higher prices and fewer farmers in the market. Look at what has happened to milk, which both governments have left in the lurch. In the meantime, food imports--as others have said--do not seem to be subjected to the same criteria.
By their nature, traditional farmers cannot afford to take risks. That is why they have survived for so long. I believe that they will gradually respond to the organic movement. One-quarter of all organic farms are already in the south west and in west Dorset we have plenty of examples of good practice and success. That is only to be welcomed. However, most farmers do not have the confidence to switch to new ideas. There is not enough support for start-up and retirement schemes to help families through the transition. The French know a great deal more about this. The result is that many farmers who are young enough have gone part time or into other businesses altogether. Will the Government do anything for young or retiring farmers under the specific heading of modulation?
My noble friend Lord Palmer did not mention bananas today, but I know that both he and others are concerned about protection for efficient small producers, wherever they live. It is the vulnerable producers around the world who should always be the focus of support. I am sure that the Minister will say that she and her colleagues are not giving up the attempt to look forward, push the CAP reforms through ahead of enlargement and give our farmers a better idea of what they can expect in the next generation.
Agricultural land in the United Kingdom consists of 18.5 million hectares, of which 60 per cent is grass or rough grazing; in other words, about 11 million hectares. But those 11 million hectares make up what the noble Lord, Lord Palmer, called "this green and pleasant land" in which we live. It is the farmer, the grazier, the livestock producer who keeps it green and pleasant. Drive him out of business, and we will lose the guardians of our countryside.
While all sectors of farming are under extreme pressure, some, such as dairying and pig and sheep farming are especially hard hit. Of course, dairy farming is a high technology area, depending on heavy capital investment and very great skill. It is now uneconomic to produce milk several pence per litre below the cost of production. Many dairy farmers are going out of business, selling valuable pedigree dairy stock that they have bred for years and having invested capital in buildings, computers and health programmes. Once gone, I do not think they will ever return to the dairy industry. What will happen then to the buildings and, in particular, to the pastures on which they graze their cattle and which they use for making silage?
Pig farming is another intensive agricultural enterprise and one which is competing against cheaper imports from Denmark, Holland and Ireland--countries which are unencumbered by the high standards of welfare that we demand in this country. The ban on the use of meat and bone meal, for example, as a result of the BSE crisis has added to the problem. Moreover, there is the high value of the pound. Here, too, losses are of the order of £4 million per week and bankruptcy, unemployment, family crises and suicides have followed as a result while at the same time we import pig meat to our supermarkets and feed our forces on imported pig meat.
Sheep farming is another saga of the depressing situation of livestock production. This applies particularly to the marginal farmers. Sheep production is the only realistic form of production in the marginal areas. I was privileged to be in Powys on Monday this week and heard about the full economic impact of the present crisis. That has been detailed by other noble Lords, but there is another aspect; namely, that the sons and daughters of these farmers are unwilling to continue the custom of following their parents into farming. It is not economic. The life is too harsh, and too heavy demands are placed on such farmers by various regulations.
Farms are sold or tenants give up their farms. Houses become country retreats for the urban dwellers and marginal land is particularly difficult to keep in productive shape. Neglect marginal land and we will go back to bracken and gorse and, occasionally, discarded bedsteads. The major criticism of sheep farmers in Wales is not that they want hand-outs. What they want is a level playing field on which they can compete. Indeed, I believe that they can compete.
The noble Baroness, Lady Wharton, mentioned the European Union regulation which would prohibit the use of feed additives such as minerals and vitamins unless they were incorporated into feed. That would make it impossible to administer these essential dietary components to animals in need of them. The estimated cost of the regulation, which has been on the books since 1970, would be of the order of £200 million. In addition, ill health and poor welfare might result.
Finally, perhaps I may stress that the British livestock farmer has not lost the ability to be a good husbandman--one who is cognisant of animal welfare and can farm at a profit. Given a level playing field, he can easily compete with any farmer anywhere in the European Union or in the world.
Lord Carlile of Berriew: My Lords, I, too, should like to congratulate the noble Lord, Lord Palmer, on initiating this debate. As I am sure we would all expect of the noble Lord, his speech was true and realistic. There was no word of exaggeration in it; indeed, noble Lords may feel that it is remarkable that an opening speech in a debate of this kind should have such a consistent echo through all the speeches that followed.
I also have an interest to declare, though not as a farmer. As far as farming and gardening go, I am an enthusiastic spectator. My interest is as a non-executive director of a plc that has feed mills and supplies feed, seed and general supplies to the agriculture industry throughout the whole of Wales and the Marches on a substantial scale. That interest gives me a very singular, bird's-eye view of what is going on in the industry. Every month we see the management accounts in which we note the increasing level of debt of farmers. We see the number of farms just going out of business; and, above all, we see how many small businesses in the agricultural supply industry are going out of business. Indeed, we are often picking up the pieces.
We can also look at the share prices in the feed sector which are dropping like stones at present. Moreover, as in our company, we can see that economies have to be made by the reduction of jobs--jobs that were part of the local picture for people living in rural areas who knew that they could not always rely merely upon the farm.
I have another non-pecuniary interest to declare that, frankly, it would have been risible to refer to in an agriculture debate a few years ago; namely, my role as patron of the National Depression Campaign. I took on that role as the father of a severely depressed daughter. However, in the years in which I have been
One speaker referred earlier to the pride that owners have in the land. I believe that the noble Lord, Lord Selsdon, referred to the pride of ownership. That is very true. It is part of the rural tradition. Farmers have not had a return on their capital for years; they stopped expecting a realistic return on their capital decades ago. It has certainly not been a realistic aspiration during all the time that I have been involved in political life. But, as one noble Lord said earlier, what they have lost now is a return on their labour.
I give your Lordships one example. I have in mind a very close friend of mine. As he lives and farms in Montgomeryshire--Trefaldwyn--I shall eponymously call him Maldwyn. He is a cowman, one of the best cowmen in Wales. He has a county council smallholding which he acquired after years of working for other people. His wife has a job as a milk recordist. They have 40 in their milking herd. Their profit in 1998 was £12,000--that is from the activity of both of them--which they regarded as a reasonable living, although I dare say Maldwyn and his wife could have earned twice as much elsewhere.
In 1999 they had a profit of £4,900, but Maldwyn's wife earned more than £4,900 in the year 1999 as a milk recordist. Therefore, the farm made a loss. In 2000 they expect a loss even though she is still working as a milk recordist. I have milked at that farm in the early morning; you could eat off the farmyard. Maldwyn is a real yeoman farmer. Their small farm now runs at such a substantial loss that there is not the remotest hope of his son, who might well have followed him in the industry, remaining in the industry at all. His son, inevitably, works away.
As a tenant farmer, what does Maldwyn have? He does not have the farm; he has his livestock. Before BSE his dairy cows were worth in round figures about £1,000 each. Today they are worth about £450 each. Mr Micawber would tell us the result of such a situation for a middle-aged farmer who is dependent, in part at least, on borrowed money. What has happened to his calves? In 1996 he obtained about £110 per calf, under the calf slaughter scheme which was then in operation. By July 1999, when the scheme ended, the price had gone down from £110 a calf to £38 a calf. Today he gives the calves away because there happens to be a hunt nearby which can use the calves' carcasses to feed the hounds. Even that option may not be available to him much longer. That is an issue on which the noble Lord, Lord Palmer, and I share strong feelings.
The problem has been clearly stated in terms of what is happening on the farms, but what is happening in the community? From 1983 to 1997 I represented Montgomeryshire in another place. That is part of rural Powys which was mentioned earlier. When I first became a Member of Parliament farmers used to complain to me frequently at my constituency surgeries. However, their complaints were as likely to be about each other as about the government, regulations or government policy. My successor, Mr Opik, the current Member for the same constituency, tells me that things are different now. Indeed, they had started to become different at various times before 1997.
Montgomeryshire has the largest number of farmers of any parliamentary constituency in the country. It has the largest number of farming union members, albeit they are divided between two unions, of any parliamentary constituency in the country. It has the largest young farmers' club membership--that is a dynamic organisation trying to create a future for young farmers--of any parliamentary constituency in the country.
The issues that we are discussing today have been discussed and researched time and time again. It is a pleasure to see the right reverend Prelate the Bishop of Hereford taking part in this debate. In the mid-1980s his diocese produced an excellent report on rural life and the future of agricultural communities. Incidentally, part of his diocese covers south Montgomeryshire and therefore I was well aware of the matters mentioned in the report. Everything that report predicted has come to pass. Almost nothing that report prescribed has been put into effect. The result has been--we are not completely surprised at the decline of rural areas--that those living in rural communities face what has rightly been described as a real crisis and a real agricultural recession.
The noble Lord, Lord Vinson, referred to the effect on communities of this kind of recession. It was brought home to me by a four-word slogan I saw some time ago in rural mid-Wales: "No sheep, no people". That is true. We hear much about diversification. I know dozens of farmers who have tried to diversify. Virtually everyone who could do that has done it. However, even people in rural mid-Wales will not buy love spoons from each other. They will not eat breakfast and sleep in each others' beds even in rural Wales. I am afraid that for those who live on the periphery of this country it is inevitable that either we have a derelict countryside as a result of rural recession or we have a supported countryside, which will save it from rural recession.
I believe that Wales, Ireland and Scotland have, historically, faced the most serious depopulation of any area in western Europe. They face the risk once again that all their young people will be forced to leave to obtain what may well prove to be temporary ".com" careers before they can return to mid-Wales to retire. The elderly population of areas such as those which have been spoken of with great knowledge in this debate has risen year upon year. When I became a
Measures can be taken. Short-term measures are required. We hope that we shall hear the Minister tell us that the agrimoney compensation will be given for the reasons which have been clearly given by the noble Lords, Lord Williamson and Lord Hardy, by the noble Earl, Lord Ferrers, and others. We also need to hear the Government give a commitment that in areas such as Wales with regional development agencies we shall cease to have the ludicrous situation which has appertained ever since the Welsh Development Agency and the Development Board for Rural Wales were formed; namely, that those agencies were not allowed to dip their fingers into agriculture. They were not allowed to try to create the circumstances in which Wales's biggest industry, agriculture, could develop. Their brief was to bring in other industries, alternatives to agriculture. That completely unrealistic separation of roles should cease.
We hope to hear from the Government that the reformed TECs will have a role to ensure that there will be a real concentration on finding alternative training and employment for people who have been employed in agriculture. We on these Benches say to the Minister, in a sentence, that farming is in catastrophe. We ask the Government, please, to use their power and money to do something about it.
Baroness Byford: My Lords, the noble Lord, Lord Palmer, has introduced this debate at an opportune moment. He referred to the potential of non-food crops, which we debated in this House last Friday. They have a role and a future, but although this is welcome, they still form only a comparatively small part of the overall farming scenario.
The contribution of the noble Lord, Lord Palmer, clearly emphasised the continuing crisis that faces farmers today. However the Government try to portray life in rural areas, they cannot but accept that many farmers and their families face problems of unacceptable proportions. I declare my family farming interest.
As other noble Lords have said, farm incomes have plummeted. The NFU mentions an average of £16,250 for 1997-98, of which £5,000 is pensions, benefits and off-farm earnings. The figures for 1998-99 have halved to an average income of £8,000. I believe that they are due to halve again. Today one of my noble friends mentioned a farmer's income of 72p an hour. Where is the minimum wage there? For many there is little farm income, and for some, none.
On Wednesday of last week I attended a meeting of the Church Synod, where the right reverend Prelate the Bishop of Hereford moved a debate which recognised the current crisis in agriculture and how that was reflected in the wider rural community. Speaker after
While the Church Synod was meeting at Church House, the pig farmers had their meeting in Westminster--not across in Parliament Square--to raise the issue of their demise with parliamentarians. I was somewhat anxious when I understood that no one from the Government was able to attend. Why? At a time such as this that was very unfortunate. However, like other noble Lords, I am pleased to have heard today that the Prime Minister will be meeting leaders of the industry. One hopes that the issue of its demise will at least be discussed and matters moved forward.
We were asked what we would do. What should the Government do? They can do several things. They can act immediately to implement all the recommendations of the three reports which have just been completed--Looking into Red Tape, IACS Payments and the Future of the Intervention Board. This would be a welcome move and would ease many burdens on farmers.
The Government can look at all proposed legislation and calculate the implementation costs for our farmers. The Prime Minister has announced that there will be no pesticide tax at present. We welcome that. But when the government moratorium ends, IPPC charges will impose extra costs on our pig and poultry producing farmers. This charge does not have to come into force across the EU until 2007.
Will the Government think again about applying the climate change levy, which will obviously have great implications for our fruit and vegetable growers? Are other countries imposing such charges on their horticulture businesses? There is also the question of battery hen cages and the feedstuff regulations, to which my noble friends have referred. Our farmers follow the highest standards in animal welfare. If these same high standards are not adopted simultaneously by all countries, our farmers will become uncompetitive and will surely be forced out of business.
I turn now to the effect that the farming crisis is having on families. Many noble Lords have mentioned this. The burden is carried by the whole family and very often especially by the farmer's wife. Many of these resourceful ladies have taken on extra jobs,
As other noble Lords have pointed out, when a farming job goes it affects not only the family farm. Once a family farming job is lost, 15 allied jobs go with it. It affects suppliers, vets, agricultural businesses, services and processors. Some 18,000 farmers--indeed, my noble friend Lord Ferrers said the figure was 22,000--left the industry last year. What are the costs in benefits, in welfare payments, in retraining? What are the costs of trying to service bank loans when the value of the stock is plummeting?
We posed these questions to the Government but we were given the standard answer that such statistical details are not available. As the debate is about the economics of agriculture, perhaps the Minister will have some information for us today. If not, perhaps she can ensure that we receive further information later.
In human terms, the farming crisis cannot be overstated. I believe that there is a great future for our farming and horticulture industries, but to safeguard them the Government must have a clear, long-term strategy. I totally agree that if we do not have a short-term strategy soon, there will be no long-term farming needs anyway. But let us accept that the Government are putting their minds to addressing the short term and looking to the longer term. Many points have been made about this and I shall return to the matter later.
As has been echoed around the Chamber today, I believe that the industry faces five major problems: the whole question of tenant farmers; lack of succession; no retirement funds; still falling prices; and unfair overseas competition.
The 1995 Agricultural Tenancies Act has obviously freed up the market-place as the decline in the supply of tenanted land has been reversed in each of the past four years. Moreover, the figures from the Central Association of Valuers show that 50 per cent of new tenancies for 1999 were for more than five years. This is most encouraging.
But the typical tenant farmer picture is far from upbeat. He and his wife are working horrendous hours to earn a sum that has halved and halved again in the past three years. His children do not want to follow him into farming because they see no future in it. The value of his livestock, his milk, his barley, his sheep, his savings, his pension is almost gone; he owns nothing--and the Government have refused a retirement package to enable him and his wife to get out with dignity.
In the time available it would be impossible for me to reflect on the many excellent contributions that have been made to the debate. I should, however, like to comment on a few of them. Honesty in labelling is very important. I, too, am very disappointed that the Government did not accept Stephen O'Brien's Private Member's Bill last Friday. The strong pound is crucial to the problem. As other noble Lords have said, the Government must apply for the agrimoney, and they must do so urgently. Several noble Lords mentioned the issue of GM trials. They must go ahead because we need know their results. Small abattoirs must be protected. The regulations which make trading difficult for them must be eased, otherwise we will lose our organic markets and niche markets. Questions concerning regulations and bureaucracy have echoed around the Chamber, one after the other. When is a subsidy not a subsidy? In Europe we call it a subsidy; in America they call it something else. It is high time that we agreed certain standards and a language in which we can understand each other. I, too, would encourage the MoD to buy British. We have the best; for goodness sake, let us buy it. Other countries would certainly do the same for their farming industry.
At the other end of the scale, new people--young farmers--are coming into the industry. I am pleased that the noble Lord, Lord Carlile, mentioned this. They are there, they are enthusiastic, they want to get to grips and to take an active part in farming. But they need to have direction and a long-term view.
To me, security of our basic food needs is essential. I welcome the environmental schemes that the Government are bringing forward, but the security of our basic food needs is something for which I would fight and try to secure.
I believe that there is a future for our farming industry. But the Government must take a much more robust stand to enable it to thrive. I welcome the announcement that the Prime Minister will be holding a meeting with those from the industry. But he has to stop consulting--and, yes, he has to start implementing clear, fair, helpful steps in a strategy aimed at long-term economic stability within this important industry.
I say that in the awareness that his Motion deals with the economics of agriculture within the United Kingdom. We heard contributions from the noble Lord, Lord Laird, about the state of agriculture in Northern Ireland, and from the noble Duke, the Duke of Montrose, and others about interests in Scotland; and the noble Lord, Lord Carlile, spoke about issues relating to rural Wales.
It is important to recognise, as some speakers did, that we are a United Kingdom in terms of our relationships with the European Union, and therefore it is absolutely appropriate that we debate these issues here. Equally, we may need to take into account particular attributes of the industry in certain areas of the United Kingdom and look carefully at the relative interests. One such example is the BSE status of cattle in Northern Ireland.
It may be useful at this point to say to the noble Earl, Lord Ferrers, that legislation on hunting in Scotland will absolutely be a matter for the Scottish Parliament, as I am sure he understands from our long debates on devolution. However, I can reiterate the reassurance given earlier by the Prime Minister in terms of there being no threat whatsoever to shooting or fishing in this country.
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