|Judgments - Donohue v. Armco Inc and Others
24. If contracting parties agree to give a particular court exclusive jurisdiction to rule on claims between those parties, and a claim falling within the scope of the agreement is made in proceedings in a forum other than that which the parties have agreed, the English court will ordinarily exercise its discretion (whether by granting a stay of proceedings in England, or by restraining the prosecution of proceedings in the non-contractual forum abroad, or by such other procedural order as is appropriate in the circumstances) to secure compliance with the contractual bargain, unless the party suing in the non-contractual forum (the burden being on him) can show strong reasons for suing in that forum. I use the word "ordinarily" to recognise that where an exercise of discretion is called for there can be no absolute or inflexible rule governing that exercise, and also that a party may lose his claim to equitable relief by dilatoriness or other unconscionable conduct. But the general rule is clear: where parties have bound themselves by an exclusive jurisdiction clause effect should ordinarily be given to that obligation in the absence of strong reasons for departing from it. Whether a party can show strong reasons, sufficient to displace the other party's prima facie entitlement to enforce the contractual bargain, will depend on all the facts and circumstances of the particular case. In the course of his judgment in The Eleftheria  P 94, 99-100, Brandon J helpfully listed some of the matters which might properly be regarded by the court when exercising its discretion, and his judgment has been repeatedly cited and applied. Brandon J did not intend his list to be comprehensive, but mentioned a number of matters, including the law governing the contract, which may in some cases be material. (I am mindful that the principles governing the grant of injunctions and stays are not the same: see Aérospatiale at p 896. Considerations of comity arise in the one case but not in the other. These differences need not, however, be explored in this case).
25. Where the dispute is between two contracting parties, A and B, and A sues B in a non-contractual forum, and A's claims fall within the scope of the exclusive jurisdiction clause in their contract, and the interests of other parties are not involved, effect will in all probability be given to the clause. That was the result in Mackender v Feldia AG  2 QB 590; Unterweser Reederei GmbH v Zapata Off-Shore Co (The Chaparral)  2 Lloyd's Rep 158; The Eleftheria  P 94; DSV Silo- und Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH v Owners of the Sennar and 13 Other Ships (The Sennar (No 2))  1 WLR 490; British Aerospace Plc v Dee Howard Co  1 Lloyd's Rep 368; Continental Bank NA v Aeakos Compania Naviera SA and Others  1 WLR 588; Aggeliki Charis Compania Maritima SA v Pagnan SpA (The Angelic Grace)  1 Lloyd's Rep 87; and Akai Pty Ltd v People's Insurance Co Ltd  1 Lloyd's Rep 90. A similar approach has been followed by courts in the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand: see, for example, M/S Bremen v Zapata Off-Shore Co (1972) 407 US 1; Volkswagen Canada Inc v Auto Haus Frohlich Ltd  1 WWR 380; FAI General Insurance Co Ltd v Ocean Marine Mutual Protection and Indemnity Association (1997) 41 NSWLR 559; and Kidd v van Heeren  1 NZLR 324.26.
Cargo Lately Laden on Board The Fehmarn (Owners) v Fehmarn (Owners) (The Fehmarn)  1 WLR 159 shows that this is not an invariable result. This was one of the earlier cases in the modern series. The Russian exclusive jurisdiction clause was a condition in a bill of lading, no doubt part of a standard form, and certainly not the subject of negotiation between the parties to the eventual dispute. That was between English owners of the bill and German owners of the vessel. The dispute was held to have a much closer connection with England than with Russia, and it was thought that the German owners did not object to the dispute being decided in England if they could avoid giving security. On those grounds, the judge having declined to stay the proceedings in England, the Court of Appeal upheld his decision.
27. The authorities show that the English court may well decline to grant an injunction or a stay, as the case may be, where the interests of parties other than the parties bound by the exclusive jurisdiction clause are involved or grounds of claim not the subject of the clause are part of the relevant dispute so that there is a risk of parallel proceedings and inconsistent decisions. These decisions are instructive. In Evans Marshall and Co Ltd v Bertola SA and Another  1 WLR 349 there was a tripartite dispute but only two of the parties were bound by a clause conferring exclusive jurisdiction on the court in Barcelona. Kerr J at first instance was impressed by the undesirability of there being two actions, one in London and the other in Barcelona (pp 363-364). The Court of Appeal took a similar view (pp 377, 385). Sachs LJ thought separate trials particularly inappropriate where a conspiracy claim was in issue (p 377). In Aratra Potato Co Ltd v Egyptian Navigation Co (The El Amria)  2 Lloyd's Rep 119 the primary dispute was between cargo interests and the owner of the vessel, both parties being bound by a clause in the bill of lading conferring exclusive jurisdiction on the courts of Egypt. But the cargo interests had also issued proceedings against the Mersey Docks and Harbour Co, which was not bound by the clause. The Court of Appeal upheld the judge's decision refusing a stay. In the course of his leading judgment in the Court of Appeal Brandon LJ said, at p 128:
Citi-March Ltd v Neptune Orient Lines Ltd  1 WLR 1367 also involved third party interests and raised the possibility of inconsistent decisions. Colman J regarded separate trials in England and Singapore as not only inconvenient but also a potential source of injustice and made an order intended to achieve a composite trial in London despite a Singaporean exclusive jurisdiction clause: see at pp 1375-1376. Mahavir Minerals Ltd v Cho Yang Shipping Co Ltd (The M C Pearl)  1 Lloyd's Rep 566 again involved third parties and raised the possibility of inconsistent findings. Despite a clause conferring exclusive jurisdiction on the courts of Seoul, Rix J refused to stay proceedings in England. He regarded the case as on all fours with Citi-March (see p 575) and at p 569 observed:
A similar approach is discernible in Bouygues Offshore SA v Caspian Shipping Co  2 Lloyd's Rep 461, in which the disputes involved four parties only two of whom were bound by an English exclusive jurisdiction clause. Although the effect of the clause was described by Evans LJ as "near-conclusive" (p 467), an injunction to restrain proceedings in South Africa was refused. In paragraph 27 of his judgment (at p 466) Evans LJ said:
Sir John Knox also held that proceedings should be allowed to continue in South Africa because, among other reasons (see p 470),
28. Not all cases can be so neatly categorised. In Crédit Suisse First Boston (Europe) Ltd v MLC (Bermuda) Ltd  1 All ER (Comm) 237 Rix J dealt with a case in which there were four potential parties and three different agreements (or classes of agreement) but only two of the parties were bound by an English exclusive jurisdiction clause under one of the agreements. There were proceedings by C against A (the two parties to the clause) in England and proceedings by A against C, B and D in New York alleging statutory breaches relating to the agreement containing the clause and also under an agreement not containing an exclusive jurisdiction clause, and including other claims such as a claim for conversion. The judge gave leave, on their application, for B and D to be joined to C's action against A in England (p 248). A's application to stay the proceedings by C in England was not pursued, but if it had been it would have failed (p 257). On an application by C, B and D for an injunction to restrain A suing them in New York, the judge granted an injunction but only to restrain the prosecution of claims covered by the exclusive jurisdiction clause (p 259). The judge was confronted in this case with a difficult procedural and jurisdictional tangle which permitted no wholly satisfactory solution. It was however important to his decision that he did not judge it possible to make an order which would ensure trial of all proceedings arising out of all the agreements in one forum. At p 257 he said (interpolating schematic references for the references he made to named parties):
29. In seeking to apply this body of authority to the present case the first point to be made is that Mr Donohue has as against the first three Armco appellants a strong prima facie right not to be the subject elsewhere than in England of claims by those companies falling within the scope of the clause. Some of the claims made against him by those companies in New York do fall within the clause. This is an important and substantial, and not a formal or technical, right. At an earlier stage of this English litigation Armco sought to impeach the exclusive jurisdiction clauses on the ground that they had been induced by the fraud of the four conspirators. The judge not only rejected the contention that Armco executives had been misled but also found that Armco's English and US lawyers had known all about the clauses and their consequences and that Armco had had its own good reasons for inserting English law and jurisdiction clauses in the contracts ( 2 Lloyd's Rep 649 at pp 657-659, paras 35-40). There was no appeal against these conclusions. Thus Armco, having agreed to these clauses to serve their own ends, are now seeking to be released from their bargain. To permit them to do so exposes Mr Donohue to an obvious risk of injustice. This risk does not derive from the venue alone: Mr Donohue might, as a United Kingdom citizen, prefer to be sued in London rather than New York if he has to be sued anywhere, but to him, as a resident of Singapore, New York is not in itself an obviously more inconvenient forum than London. A more substantial objection may be founded on the perceived procedural disadvantages to him of being sued in New York: as the evidence suggests, the cost would be greater, trial would be by jury and costs would be very largely irrecoverable even if he were to succeed. But there are always points of this kind to be made when comparing one forum with another, and the standing, authority and expertise of the forum in which the New York proceedings are being pursued cannot be questioned. Much more significant, from Mr Donohue's viewpoint, are the RICO claims made against him. They could not be pursued against him in England. They could, if established in New York, lead to the award of swingeing damages against him. On agreement of the exclusive jurisdiction clause he could reasonably have felt confident that no RICO claim arising out of or in connection with the agreements could be pursued against him and it would represent an obvious injustice if he were now to be exposed to those claims.
30. There is, as always, another side to the coin. All five Armco appellants have a clear prima facie right to pursue against Messrs Rossi, and Stinson and their respective companies any claim they choose in any convenient forum where they can found jurisdiction. They have successfully founded jurisdiction in New York. There is, as I have already concluded, no ground upon which this court could properly seek to restrain those proceedings. It would not be appropriate for the English courts to form any judgment, however tentative, on the merits of the Armco companies' claims, beyond noting that lack of merit was not one of the grounds on which the PCCs invited Judge Schwartz to dismiss the proceedings in New York. It must be assumed that the claims made by the Armco companies against their former employees Messrs Rossi and Stinson, including the RICO claims, are serious and substantial claims. There is nothing whatever to suggest that these claims will not proceed in New York whether or not an injunction is granted to Mr Donohue.
31. It must further be noted that APL and NNIC have a clear prima facie right to pursue against Mr Donohue, Wingfield and CISHL also any claim they choose in any convenient forum where they can found jurisdiction. They have successfully founded jurisdiction in New York. I have already recorded that service of the English proceedings on APL and NNIC has been set aside. There is no ground upon which the English court could properly restrain their proceedings in New York. It appears, as Stuart-Smith LJ held ( 1 Lloyd's Rep 579 at 593, para 54(3) that the claims of APL and NNIC relate to the collection agreement and the trust fund withdrawals rather than the allegedly fraudulent management buy-out, but these claims also cannot be treated as lacking merit. They are proceeding in New York, and everything suggests that they will continue in New York whether or not the English court grants an injunction to Mr Donohue.
32. Similarly, the first three Armco appellants have a clear prima facie right to pursue against Mr Donohue, Wingfield and CISHL any claim not covered by the exclusive jurisdiction clauses in any convenient forum where they can found jurisdiction. They have successfully founded jurisdiction in New York. To the extent that the claims of these Armco companies do not arise out of or in connection with the transfer agreements and the sale and purchase agreement, they fall outside the exclusive jurisdiction clauses, and there is no ground upon which the English court could properly restrain these proceedings. Everything suggests that they will continue in New York whether or not the English court grants an injunction to Mr Donohue.
33. Thus Mr Donohue's strong prima facie right to be sued here on claims made by the other parties to the exclusive jurisdiction clause so far as the claims made fall within that clause is matched by the clear prima facie right of the Armco companies to pursue in New York the claims mentioned in the last three paragraphs. The crucial question is whether, on the fact of this case, the Armco companies can show strong reasons why the court should displace Mr Donohue's clear prima facie entitlement. If strong reasons are to be found (and the need for strong reasons is underlined in this case by the potential injustice to Mr Donohue, already noted, if effect is not given to the exclusive jurisdiction clauses) they must lie in the prospect, if an injunction is granted, of litigation between the Armco companies on one side and Mr Donohue and the PCCs on the other continuing partly in England and partly in New York. What weight should be given to that consideration in the circumstances of this case?
34. I am driven to conclude that great weight should be given to it. The Armco companies contend that they were the victims of a fraudulent conspiracy perpetrated by Messrs Donohue, Atkins, Rossi and Stinson. Determination of the truth or falsity of that allegation lies at the heart of the dispute concerning the transfer agreements and the sale and purchase agreement. It will of course be necessary for any court making that determination to consider any contemporary documentation and any undisputed evidence of what was said, done or known. But also, and crucially, it will be necessary for any such court to form a judgment on the honesty and motives of the four alleged conspirators. It would not seem conceivable, on the Armco case, that some of the four were guilty of the nefarious conduct alleged against them and others not. It seems to me plain that in a situation of this kind the interests of justice are best served by the submission of the whole dispute to a single tribunal which is best fitted to make a reliable, comprehensive judgment on all the matters in issue. A procedure which permitted the possibility of different conclusions by different tribunals, perhaps made on different evidence, would in my view run directly counter to the interests of justice.
35. Stuart-Smith LJ (at pp 590-591, paras 42-44) regarded the subject matter of the collection agreement complaints as "quite different" from that involving the first three Armco appellants in relation to the transfer agreements and the sale and purchase agreement. He discounted the significance of the trust fund withdrawal claims on the ground that they had almost certainly been settled (p 591, para 45), although it is noteworthy that the settlement agreement made with NAIC expressly preserved the right of NNIC to pursue claims against Messrs Rossi, Stinson, Donohue and Atkins, ITRS, IROS, Wingfield, NPV and CISHL in the New York proceedings. It is true that the collection agreement and the trust fund withdrawals give rise to different grounds of claim. But the principal actors are the same, and Armco contends, rightly or wrongly, that these were further manifestations of the plot made by the four conspirators to enrich themselves at the expense of Armco. I cannot for my part accept that the ends of justice would be well served if Armco's allegations concerning the transfer and sale and purchase agreements were determined in England and its allegations concerning the collection agreement and trust fund withdrawals were determined in separate proceedings in New York. The judgment made of the motives and honesty of the four alleged conspirators in the one context would plainly have an important bearing on the judgment made in the other.
36. In my opinion, and subject to an important qualification, the ends of justice would be best served by a single composite trial in the only forum in which a single composite trial can be procured, which is New York, and accordingly I find strong reasons for not giving effect to the exclusive jurisdiction clause in favour of Mr Donohue. In New York proceedings Mr Donohue will be entitled to claim that the sale and purchase agreement is governed by English law. And Lord Grabiner, representing Armco, has accepted that Armco's breach of contract in suing elsewhere than in the contractual forum could found a claim by Mr Donohue for any damage he has suffered as a result. The qualification is that he should be protected against liability under the RICO claims made against him because of the obvious injustice to him which such liability would in the circumstances involve. But before considering whether such a protection can and should be afforded to Mr Donohue it is necessary to address an important preliminary question.
37. The discretion whether or not to grant an injunction was in the first instance that of the judge. His exercise of discretion was entitled to be respected unless, on grounds of his error or misdirection, the Court of Appeal was entitled to exercise its discretion afresh. The Court of Appeal held, rightly, that such grounds existed, and did exercise its discretion afresh. But the exercise of discretion is not at large in this House: the Court of Appeal's exercise of discretion must in its turn be respected unless on grounds of error or misdirection the House is entitled to exercise its own discretion. Having regard to the long and closely reasoned leading judgment of Stuart-Smith LJ, I would not lightly disregard the majority's conclusion.
38. I am however persuaded that the discretionary judgment made by the Court of Appeal is fundamentally vitiated by an incorrect view of the future shape of this litigation. In his judgment, Stuart-Smith LJ considered the grant of an injunction to Mr Donohue before considering whether Messrs Rossi and Stinson and their respective companies should be joined as claimants, and this enabled Mr Donohue to contend in argument that the Court of Appeal's decision on grant of an injunction should stand despite its conclusion, incorrect as I have held it to be, on joinder. But this reading of Stuart-Smith LJ's judgment cannot in my opinion be sustained. I think it is plain, in particular from paragraph 42 of his judgment (at p 590), that Stuart-Smith LJ contemplated that all disputes between the Armco companies and Messrs Donohue, Rossi and Stinson relating to the transfer and sale and purchase agreements would be resolved in the English forum. This enabled him to say:
He was not there recognising the possibility that different conclusions might be reached in the cases of Mr Rossi and Mr Stinson on the one hand and Mr Donohue and Wingfield on the other, a very unlikely event in the case of a single composite trial but an entirely possible outcome if parallel trials relating to the management buy-out took place in both England and New York. This incorrect view was in my opinion compounded by his treatment of the collection and trust fund withdrawal claims as different and separate from the management buy-out claims. For reasons already given I cannot accept this view. Had Stuart-Smith LJ reached the view which I have reached on the joinder of Messrs Rossi and Stinson and their companies, I feel sure that he would have been gravely concerned at the prospect of the same issue being determined in different tribunals, with the obvious and highly undesirable risk of inconsistent findings and decisions. For these reasons I am of the opinion that members of the House are entitled and bound to exercise their discretion afresh.
39. The interests of justice are in my judgment best served if an anti-suit injunction is denied to Mr Donohue but an undertaking proffered on behalf of the Armco companies (defined to include the five Armco appellants) is accepted in the following terms:
If there were any doubt about the efficacy of this proffered undertaking in relation not only to Mr Donohue but also Wingfield and CISHL, I would order the joinder of those companies. But I am satisfied that this is an unnecessary step which would serve no useful purpose. I would accordingly refuse the application of these parties to be joined as claimants in the present action. In the result, I would allow the appeal, on the undertaking just recited, and set aside the orders of the Court of Appeal joining the PCCs as claimants and granting an injunction to Mr Donohue.
LORD MACKAY OF CLASHFERN
40. I have had the advantage of reading in draft the speech delivered by my noble and learned friend Lord Bingham of Cornhill. For the reasons he gives with which I agree, I also would allow the appeal on the terms he has proposed.
LORD NICHOLLS OF BIRKENHEAD
41. I have had the advantage of reading in draft the speech of my noble and learned friend Lord Bingham of Cornhill. For the reasons he gives, and with which I agree, I too would allow this appeal.
LORD HOBHOUSE OF WOODBOROUGH