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Baroness Symons of Vernham Dean: My Lords, I agree that as much support as possible is needed for this effort, whether it comes from the neighbours of Sudan or from further afield. In that context, I pay tribute to the work done by my colleagues in DfID. This country has committed more than £220 million-worth of aid to the Sudan since 1991.
Let us turn to the question of the corridors. The fact is that there is still a great deal of violence, and there is a problem around Darfur. We believe that aid is getting through to the South, but in the West, around Darfur, great problems remain. I assure the noble Lord, Lord Avebury, that those problems notwithstanding we shall continue to lobby for the regular and unfettered access to aid which is vital to the people in Darfur and elsewhere if the situation arises.
Lord Alton of Liverpool: My Lords, do not the figures given by the noble Lord, Lord Avebury, underline the urgency of the peace agreement? In addition to the 0.5 million people who have been displaced since February this year, some 7,000 in Dafur have died and 300 villages have been razed to the ground. What discussions has the Minister had with her counterparts in the US Administration about the lifting of sanctions if the peace agreement is settled? What transitional aid will then be provided by the US and ourselves in those circumstances?
Baroness Symons of Vernham Dean: My Lords, obviously, we have a great deal of contact with the United States. There is no specific US peace initiative as such, as I am sure the noble Lord, Lord Alton, is aware. However, our allies in the United States want to complement the arrangements that are already in place. There is obviously a UN role, and, as the noble Lord will know, there is also an EU role in looking at what is happening on the ground.
The United States has taken a close interest in what has happened. The noble Lord may know that Secretary of State Powell demonstrated United States support by visiting the peace talks on 22nd October. The points I raise about implementation and reviewing
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department for Education and Skills (Baroness Ashton of Upholland): My Lords, we propose to allow higher education providers to charge tuition fees of up to £3,000 per year, subject to approval of an access agreement by the Office for Fair Access. From 200607, the requirement to pay up-front fees will be abolished; graduates will be able to repay fee loans through the graduate contribution scheme.
Lord Renton of Mount Harry: My Lords, I thank the Minister for that clear and informative Answer. First, I declare an interest as a member of the council of Sussex University, where we are in principle supporting the idea of contributions to tuition fees being paid after graduation out of salary. Will the Minister look at two particular points? First, will she look at increasing the maintenance grant in order to give more help to academically qualified students coming from lower income families? Secondly, will she look at improving the tax status of donations to universities so that in the American manner some of the newer and younger universities in particular might be able to increase their endowment funds out of which bursaries can be granted?
Baroness Ashton of Upholland: My Lords, I am grateful to the noble Lord for his overall support. On his second point, my right honourable friends the Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Secretary of State for Education and Skills will look at all the ways in which they can enhance the opportunities of going to university.
On the maintenance grant, the noble Lord will probably know that from the academic year 200405 we are bringing back a maintenance grant for our poorer students, which will be on top of the normal maintenance grant and will be worth up to £1,000. We believe that that is a contribution. In our discussions on the arrangements with OFFA we shall consider maintenance grants too.
Baroness Ashton of Upholland: My Lords, I am grateful to the right reverend Prelate. He has made such a statement to me on several occasions. It is a point well made. In ensuring that we offer real opportunities to all our students it is important that they understand the difference between what we are proposing and the perception of what we are proposing. For the first time they will not pay fees up front; they will be able to pay them back later. Of course, they will repay them only once they are earning £15,000 plus. I accept that we have more to do to communicate that message.
Baroness Sharp of Guildford: My Lords, is the Minister aware that by shifting the burden of fees from an up-front payment to a post-graduation payment the Government are, in effect, incurring considerable loans that will subsidise universities? Such loans will amount to about £30 billion. What will be the cost to Her Majesty's Government of servicing those loans?
Baroness Ashton of Upholland: My Lords, it will be contingent on how many students take out the loans. Perhaps I may give an example that I hope will assist the House. If 50 per cent of higher education institutes charge £3,000 and 50 per cent charge the standard fee, and if 80 per cent of students take out those fee loans, the loan that would be advanced would be between £1,040 million and £1,075 million and the cost to Government would be £415 million.
Lord Morgan: My Lords, can my noble friend say whether the needs of mature students will be considered? They loom very large; they number perhaps a third of the student body of some universities. Does my noble friend agree that they have been casualties of recent policies and tend to be excluded in discussions on this matter?
Baroness Ashton of Upholland: My Lords, my noble friend is right. We do not focus on them enough. I shall personally ponder that point as I am aware that I do not talk much about mature students. Many mature students are part of our part-time student cohort. We are introducing opportunities for part-time students to have assistance with their fees and costs.
Baroness Seccombe: My Lords, on past record, the quantum of funding from Government plus the tuition fee has not resulted in a discernible increase in income for the universities. What guarantee can the noble Baroness give that the income from the proposed £3,000 top-up fees will be truly additional?
Baroness Ashton of Upholland: My Lords, we have set out our future spending plans for universities. We are well aware that the contributions that the universities seek come from the state and, of course, from those who benefit from universities. I can give that assurance. In determining one's position on such
Lord Rix: My Lords, I declare an interest as Chancellor of the University of East London. Are the Government aware of the HEFC proposal that will take more than £1 million away from modern universities that serve people from racial minorities and that that will affect four out of five universities in the London area?
Baroness Ashton of Upholland: My Lords, I am not aware of the specific point that the noble Lord makes in terms of the London universities. We are very keen to ensure that we have active participation by the university sector to ensure that we have the highest possible calibre of students. We recognise that some of our students need to be supported by better communication, as the right reverend Prelate said, and by other factors to attend university. I believe that is the fund to which the noble Lord refers and we are keen to see it supported by all universities.
Earl Russell: My Lords, is the Minister aware that, even before the introduction of any tuition fees, the student loan is so far from maintaining students as to create a severe inequity in terms of parental bank balances between students already at university, to the extent that perhaps one should advise those estranged from their parents not to go to university at all? Is she further aware that putting additional debt on students can be only an incentive to go for only high-salaried jobs and would be nothing but an obstacle to further teacher recruitment?
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