APPENDIX 4 Glossary of Terms
of British Travel Agents.
responsible for drafting and implementation of an ASA and
MOU. In the UK this is the Secretary of State for the Environment,
Transport and the Regions for all issues except tariffs
for which the CAA is the aeronautical authority.
is the same as an MOU.
Information Publicationa publication issued by, or with
the authority of, a State and containing information of a lasting
character essential to air navigation.
definition, see Article 96 of the Chicago Convention.
Information Servicerun by the CAA, Issue NOTAMs
(or Special Notices) to airlines on security, safety and navigational
matters; based at Gatwick.
Maritime Department of the Foreign and Commonwealth Officeliase
between DOT and geographical sections of FCO.
Order 2000secondary legislation covering the legal requirements
under which UK-registered aircraft/airlines operate; providing
that operating permits should be required for foreign airlines
operating commercial services (scheduled and charter) to the UK
and setting out the grounds on which permits may be refused and
the penalties for infringements of the ANO.
(Overseas Territories) Order 1989.
ASAAir Services AgreementTreaty
containing bilaterally-agreed legal framework upon which scheduled
air services may operate.
Organisers Licencegranted by the CAA, these licences
are a legal requirement for tour operators which sell most types
of air travel/holiday packages in the UK. The procedure involved
in obtaining such a licence which is mandatory for UK tour organisers,
involves financial screening by the CAA so that money can be provided
to bring passengers home from abroad and to refund those who have
paid in advance in circumstances where, for example, airlines
cease operations through bankruptcy.
UK/US air services agreement signed in 1945; the original "liberal"
non-restrictive type of ASA.
ASA negotiated in 1977 which superseded Bermuda 1 in order
to redress the balance of air service advantage which at that
time lay with the US by limiting the number of airlines which
could be designated to operate on certain routes and the over-provision
of capacity by some US carriers.
Blind Sectora sector
within an agreed route on which traffic may not be carried. For
example, a service London-Hong Kong-Manila operating Hong Kong-Manila
as a blinded sector means that traffic could not be carried
between Hong Kong and Manila.
services in one country operated by a carrier of another country.
Certificate of Airworthinesssee
Article 31 of the Chicago Convention. Every aircraft should
have a certificate issued by the State Registry, which is in effect
its MOT certificate.
Channel Islands and the Isle of Man are not part of the United
Kingdom but are self-governing dependencies of the Crown with
their own legislative assemblies and systems of law and administration.
They have no representation at Westminster but the UK Government
is responsible for the defence and international relations of
the Islands. The islands should be consulted, via the Home Office,
on air services agreements affecting them.
flight operated according to the national laws and regulations
of the country being served as provided for in Article 5 of the
Chicago Convention. A flight on which all (or almost all)
the capacity which is occupied by passengers or cargo has been
sold to one or more charterers for resale. Somtimes charter operators
seek to sell some seat only tickets in order to fill the aircraft
(some aviation partners are more liberal than others; some will
allow any type of charter, including seat-only, subject to reciprocity,
others control charter operations very tightly).
ICAOConvention signed in December 1944 which sets
out the framework on which air services operate in order that
"international air transport services may be established
on the basis of equality of opportunity and operated soundly and
economically". Established the ICAO. The key articles
Article 1sovereignty of air
Article 5covering charter
Article 6covering scheduled
Article 7restriction on cabotage
Article 24 and Annex 9customs
Article 29documents to be
carried on aircraft
Article 31certificates of
Article 33recognition of certificates
The Annexes to the Chicago convention are documents
covering technical issues and are updated on a fairly regular
basis. The Annexes are:
3Meteorological Services for
International Air Navigation
5Units of Measurement for
Air and Ground Operations
6Operation of Aircraft
7Aircraft Nationality and
8Airworthiness of Aircraft
entry and departure at airports)
11Air Traffic Services
13Aircraft Accident Investigation
17SecurityActs of Unlawful
18The Safe Transport of Dangerous
Goods by Air
City Pairsthe points
of origin and destination of a flight.
Memorandum of Understandingconfidential version of an MOU.
of Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS).
and cargo service. Carries fewer seats and takes more cargo than
to an ASA.
State which has consented to be bound by a treaty whether or not
the treaty has entered into force.
where demand exceeds available slots and a slot allocation
procedure has to be used; eg Heathrow.
of Registration of an aircraft.
Damp leasesee lease.
(aka Overseas Territories)comprise: Anguilla, Bermuda,
British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory, British
Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Hong
Kong, Montserrat, Pitcairn/Henderson/Ducie and Oeno Islands,
St Helena, St Helena Dependencies, South Georgia and South Sandwich
Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands and the UK Sovereign Base Areas
of Akrotiri and Dhekelia in Cyprus.
by a State of the airline or airlines to operate a particular
route. The bilateral partner can be informed of the nomination
by letter, Diplomatic Note or inclusion of the detail in an MOU/Agreed
Record. Designation is required for charter airlines between
UK and the US.
"letter" sent by FCO/Embassy on behalf of the
Contracting Party used, eg to notify designation of an
airline (although this can usually be done by a letter from the
aeronautical authority unless the ASA says otherwise) or formally
requesting talks (again a letter is usually sufficient).
Staffpart of the Ministry of Defence, provide assessment
of security risks relating to individual countries.
Dry leasesee lease.
Aviation Conferencean autonomous body set up in 1955 following
a decision by the Council of Ministers of the Council of Europe.
It is an autonomous body which is neither a completely independent
body nor a body subordinate to ICAO and integrated with
it. Its objectives are to review generally the development of
European air transport in order to promote the co-ordination,
the better utilisation and the orderly development of air transport.
Its principal interest is the economic aspects of air transport
and to advise and assist European signatory states in the preparation
of their national regulations. Membership list attached. There
are similar regional conferences in Africa (AFCAC) and Latin America
Area. Comprising: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK.
Grouppart of the CAA dealing with economic analyses
of rights exchanges, UK and foreign carrier tariffs and
route licences for, and financial competence of, UK-registered
of ATC for overflights of European countries. CAA
collects fees on their behalf and acts to detain aircraft where
debts to Eurocontrol have built up.
Exchange of Lettersletters
between the aeronautical authorities amending an MOU
or equivalent document, not published, not legally binding although
breach of their terms by one side would permit withdrawal of reciprocal/exchanged
rights by the other side.
Exchange of Notesletters
between Contracting Parties used to amend an ASA,
published, legally binding of Treaty status.
Administration of the United States. Carries out similar regulatory
functions for domestic registered aircraft and airlines, and safety
functions in relation to foreign airlines as the CAA.
Centrea unit providing flight information services and
an alerting service for airlines in the event of an accident.
Flight Information Regionan
airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic services
are provided by the named centre/country.
Flight Information Servicea
service provided to aircraft for the purpose of giving advice
and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights.
provided to air traffic service units about the intended
flight of an aircraft.
Freedoms of the Air (these
definitions relate to aircraft registered in state A):
1st freedomright to flight over state
B without commercial or technical stops.
2nd freedomright to land in state B for
technical purposes, eg refuelling.
3rd freedomright to set down traffic from
state A in state B.
4th freedomright to pick up traffic in
state B destined for state A.
5th freedomright to pick up traffic in
state B destined for state C or put down traffic in state B originating
in state C.
6th freedomservice taking passengers between
states B and C which flies via state A.
7th freedomservice between state B and
state C operated by airline of state Aa "free-standing
NOTES: 3rd and
4th freedoms are always granted together. 6th freedoms are effectively
two 3rd/4th freedom services linked together each of which are
operated under the relevant bilateral agreement. These are not
rights "granted" under an ASA but they are controlled
under the tariff and primary justification provisions
of an ASA.
Free-standing fifth freedomsee
freedoms of the air Appendix 5.
& Manufacturers Trade Association.
of last departure and first arrival of international scheduled
services; eg on a LondonManchesterBoston flight,
the gateway airports would be Manchester and Boston.
office of a State in another country where both states are members
of the Commonwealth.
Hub and spoke systema
hub is an airport on which traffic from a number of peripheral
points is concentrated, and which is in turn linked by direct
flights to peripheral (spoke) points. Such systems can involve
linking a gateway airport to a number of domestic points
(common in the US) or can be used in change of gauge operations.
to take humanitarian aid or carry refugees etc. Can be organised
by the UN or DfID (Department of International DevelopmentUK
Govt Dept). Under international conventions, UN flights are simply
cleared whatever the carrier or routeing. DfID chartered flights
are normally hired in accordance with EC Council Regulation 92/50
on public procurement and would not be subject to the normal "no
objections" requirements of the 5th freedom procedures. All
other 5th freedom flights not hired under Regulation 92/50 will
require non-objections from UK carriers.
Air Services Transit Agreement December 1944provides for
overflight (scheduled services) of signatory States by
airlines of other signatory States.
Air Transport Agreement of December 1944intended to fulfil
the same function regarding air services which is now discharged
by bilateral agreements. Only 12 states acceded to it and now
the only importance of this document is that it defines the first
five freedoms of the air.
Air Transport Associationa trade body to which most scheduled
international airlines belong. Has traditionally provided a forum
in which interline agreements and other commercial arrangements
as well as tariffs can be agreed. Increasing role in negotiating
improved airways and access to airports.
Civil Aviation OrganisationUnited Nations body formed in
December 1944 under the auspices of the Chicago Convention
with the objectives of developing the principles and techniques
of international air navigation and fostering the planning and
development of international air transport so as: to ensure safe
and orderly growth of international aviation throughout the world;
to encourage the arts of aircraft design and operation for peaceful
purposes; to encourage the development of airways, airports and
air navigation facilities for civil aviation; to meet the needs
of peoples of the world for safe, regular, efficient and economical
air transport; to prevent economic waste caused by unreasonable
competition; to ensure the rights of States are respected; to
avoid discrimination between States; to promote the safety of
flight. Detailed standards and recommendations are included in
the Annexes to the Convention, eg Annex 6 on safety and Annex
9 on "facilitation" (customs, immigration, security
of transport and accommodation as a package.
at an intermediate point on a journey, from one aircraft to an
aircraft of a different airline but without any sharing of the
International Air Servicesee
Art. 96 of the Chicago Convention.
Isle of Mansee
AuthoritiesECAC body concerned with safety standards.
Member States: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway,
Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK.
whereby an airline operates services on behalf of another airline.
Leases can involve provision by the lessor airline of an aircraft
(dry lease), aircraft and crew (wet lease) or aircraft and flight
crew (damp lease).
Understandinga non-binding document agreed between two
countries accompanying the air services agreement and including
the detailed rights which cannot be contained in the Treaty because
they are likely to be updated fairly frequently, eg capacity limits
and 5th freedom rights.
carried free-of-charge by an airline. Usually a company employee.
In their economic analyses, the CAA include an allowance
(a set percentage) for seats not sold to the public in assessing
stop for non-traffic purposes.
AirMena notice containing information about the establishment,
condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure
or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel
concerned with flight operations. Issued in the UK by the AIS.
A NOTAM Class 1 is distributed by means of telecommunications,
a NOTAM Class 2 is distributed by slower and cheaper means.
issued permitting a carrier to operate a service to the UK under
Article 102 of the ANO. Permits are required for scheduled and
non-scheduled passenger, cargo and combi services where these
services are operated for reward. Empty flights to position aircraft
or for aircraft maintenance and flights operated on a non-commercial
basis (eg a corporate-owned aircraft flying company members) do
not require permits. UK airlines similarly need to seek permits
from the aviation authorities of the country to which they wish
freedoms of the air for definition, available for scheduled
services under IASTA and Article 3 of the model ASA;
for charter services the right is granted under Article
5 of the Chicago Convention.
series of charters for which a single application is being
made by the operator.
amending or supplementing an existing convention or agreement.
Usually a legally binding document.
of signature and signifies the intention to be bound by the provisions
of a treaty.
points to or through which a carrier may fly under the bilateral
arrangements with third/fourth freedom traffic rights. Usually
contained in the route schedule/annex to an ASA
but amendments to the route may be set out in subsequent exchanges
to an ASA setting out the routes that the designated
airlines may use. An open route schedule allows a carrier to operate
via or to any point without restriction. The route schedule usually
contains a footnote requiring any fifth freedom rights
to be the subject of negotiation between the bilateral partners.
In some cases this footnote is omitted with the effect that open
(ie unlimited) fifth freedom rights are permitted on the points
on the routes set out in the route schedule.
air service operated on a regular basis by a carrier in accordance
with a published timetable or with flights so regular or frequent
that they constitute a recognisably systemic series. Requires
bilateral agreement to operate by virtue of Article 6 of the Chicago
where tickets only cover the cost of travel and not hotel, transfers
between two points/cities. A flight may be made up of a series
of sectors, for example London-Calcutta-Dacca.
time allocated to an airline to land or take-off from a particular
on which the entire space is hired by a single person (individual,
firm, corporation or institution) for the cariage of his or its
staff or merchandise, provided that no part of such space is resold.
of transport and bona fide ticket to an event (ie football match
Grouppart of the CAA dealing with safety issues
relating to UK (licensing of airlines and pilots etc) and foreign
airlines (advising on complaints relating to safety and carrying
out ramp checks of aircraft and audits of airlines/aviation authorities).
Stop for non-traffic purposessee
Art 96 of the Chicago Convention. See also freedoms
of the air for definition, available for scheduled
services under IASTA and Article 3 of the model ASA;
for charter services the right is granted under Article 5 of the
on a multi-sector route for a passenger to remain for a
few days at an intermediate point and then be carried on to their
ultimate destination. Usually negotiated as a separate right since
it is difficult in practice to distinguish such passengers from
fifth freedom passengers.
STGAsubject to government approvalairlines
are permitted to sell particular services whilst approval from
the relevant aeronautical authorities is awaited. Such services
should appear in timetables and on CRS with this descriptor.
for the public transport of passengers, baggage and cargo (excluding
mail) on scheduled air services, including the conditions
governing the availability or application of such price and the
charges and conditions for services ancillary to such transport.
stop for non-traffic purposes.
EC package of measures to liberalise aviation.
passenger passing through an airport for the express purpose of
connecting with another flight.
concluded in written form between two or more States (or entities
such as international organisations having international personality)
and governed by international law. A treaty, which may take the
form of a convention, an agrement or a protocol, ususally consists
of a title, a preamble, recitals, a series of numbered articles
and a conclusion which is immediately followed by the signatures.
VIP flighta sole-use
flight for Heads of State, Ministers etc. Treated as a non-commercial
flight for which no operating permit is needed. FCO Protocol Department
may be informed by the airline of the flight but no permission
is needed for it from FCO or DOT.
Wet leasesee lease.