Select Committee on Economic Affairs Second Report


APPENDIX 4: GLOSSARY


BAU  'business as usual' - usually of a scenario that involves no policy changes

Biofuels    fuels based on biomass, e.g. wood

C      carbon (one tonne carbon = 3.67 tonnes CO2)

C2F6      perfluoroethane, a greenhouse gas

CCS      carbon capture and storage

CDM  Clean Development Mechanism: process under the Kyoto Protocol whereby one country can pay for emissions reductions in a developing country and collect the 'credit' for the reduction

CF4      perfluoromethane, a greenhouse gas

CH4      methane (natural gas), a greenhouse gas

c/kWh      (US) cents per kilowatt hour

Concentrations  Concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere

Convergence  View that per capita real incomes in rich and poor countries will converge to the same level at some time in the future

CO2      carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas

Defra      Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

$/GJ      (US) dollars per gigajoule

DTI      Department of Trade and Industry

Emissions  Emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels and burning of forests

Equity weighting  Procedure for adjusting economic costs and benefits to reflect their relative importance to different income levels.

FSU      Former Soviet Union

GCM      global circulation model

GDP  Gross Domestic Product (measure of a nation's economic output)

GNP  Gross National Product (= GDP + net property income from abroad)

GHGs      greenhouse gases

GJ      gigajoule = one billion joules

GtC  gigatonnes of carbon (one gigatonne = 1 billion (109) tonnes of carbon

Hockey stick  figurative name for the suggested time-profile of temperature change over long periods of time - fairly constant until the 19th century with a sharp upturn thereafter (the blade of the stick).

IAM  Integrated Assessment Model - a model combining a simplified form of a climate model and a model of the global economic system

IEA  International Energy Agency

Insolation    incoming solar radiation

IPCC  (United Nations) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

kWh      kilowatt hour

kWh/m2     kilowatt hours per square metre

Kyoto Protocol  first protocol (1997 ratified 2005) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) setting GHG emission reduction targets for industrialised nations

Land use change  alteration of land uses such that carbon emissions (especially) are likely to change, e.g. conversion of forest to agriculture

MARKAL  a computerised model integrating energy and economic magnitudes

MER      market exchange rate

MtC      million tonnes of carbon

NG      natural gas

NG/CC    natural gas combined cycle

N2O      nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas

Nuclear fusion  possible future form of nuclear power, based on a nuclear reaction in which atomic nuclei of low atomic number fuse to form a heavier nucleus with the release of energy

ppm      parts per million (a measure of atmospheric concentration)

PPP      purchasing power parity exchange rate

Proxy measure  (in the current context) a measure of temperature that is not derived from direct observation via thermometers, e.g. tree rings, ice cores

PV      present discounted value

PV      photovoltaic

R & D      Research and Development

SF6      sulphur hexafluoride, a greenhouse gas

SRES      (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios

tC      tonne of carbon

tCO2      tonne of carbon dioxide

THC      ocean thermohaline circulation (deep ocean currents)

WTO      World Trade Organisation




 
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