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Baroness Byford: As the noble Lord, Lord Rooker, is not in the Committee Room, the Whip has suggested that we delay taking this business. I believe that the Minister is downstairs presenting awards to the British Poultry Council.
Baroness Byford rose to move, That the Grand Committee do report to the House that it has considered the Environmental Impact Assessment (Agriculture) (England) Regulations 2006 (SI 2006/2362). 46th Report from the Merits Committee (Session 2005-06).
The noble Baroness said: I am grateful to the Committee for having a temporary adjournment because it was enormously important that the Minister was presenting awards to the poultry industry. As that is where I started my trade, many years ago, as a poultry
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Having started on a positive note, I am sorry to have to nitpick and raise certain questions. I suggest that we take these two sets of regulations together. Statutory Instrument 2006/2362 was made on 4 September, laid before Parliament on 7 September and came into force on 1 October. Statutory Instrument 2006/2522 was made on 13 September, when it was realised that there were errors in the first one, laid on 15 September and came into force on 30 September, but some remaining provisions came through on 10 October. Perhaps the Minister will tell us a little more on that matter.
My reasons for raising this issue in Committee are to seek clarification and assurance, and also to say, yet again, that the department is obviously not functioning as the Minister would like it to. To have to reproduce legislation so quickly after it has come into being seems undesirable, to say the least. How many copies of the original were made and how many were sold at £5.50? Consequently, how much money has been spent on reproducing the regulations? Presumably, there is a cost to the department which it covers.
With regard to Regulations 23 to 31, how much money does Natural England have in its budget to act as the enforcement authority? That is certainly not clear. Is the amount that it will cost Natural England to be taken out of the fees that it gets from the fines that may follow if people do not adhere to the regulations set? There is no clear definition of that. Also, does Natural England keep the fines or do they return to the revenue so that, in other words, they are lost?
In order to correct a minor but persistent validation error in the S.I. template, a final draft of those Regulations was cut out and pasted into a fresh copy of the template. The new version validated correctly, but the cut-and-paste process had introduced an unexpected error into the instrument, mis-numbering all the paragraphs in Schedules 3 to 5. This was noticed after the instrument was made, and it was considered an error that was so obvious and minor that it could justifiably be corrected before the instrument was laid.
Unfortunately, the correction of that minor error introduced a surprising and yet more serious error into the instrument, with regulation 1 becoming regulation 2 ... leading to consequential errors in the Regulations ... Most regrettably of all, that further re-numbering error was not noticed until after the instrument had been laid and printed,
These Regulations implement EU legislation on environmental impact assessment, and on habitats, by developing existing requirements for projects for the use of uncultivated land and semi-natural areas for intensive agricultural purposes. They also introduce new rules for projects for the restructuring of rural land holdings. The lack of clarity over the definition of restructuring projects in the Regulations means that there is a risk of accidental non-compliance (and thus commission of a criminal offence) by farmers and others.
DEFRA have stressed that interpretation of the term restructuring project in the 2006 Regulations should be in line with the meaning of the relevant term in the EIA directive; and yet it is clear from the Departments advice to this Committee that different Member States have interpreted this term in the EIA Directive differently. DEFRA have explained that Natural England, as the regulator with responsibility for screening decisions and consents, is ready to provide informal advice to farmers and land managers. However, it does not seem appropriate to us that uncertainties which should have been resolved in the Regulations themselves are left to be dealt with on an ad hoc basis through discussions between Natural England and individuals potentially affected.
I am sure that the Minister will agree that that is not a desirable state to be in, and that is why I have brought this issue to the attention of the Grand Committee. I shall wait to hear what other noble Lords and the Minister have to say and shall perhaps come back with further comments. I beg to move.
Moved, That the Grand Committee do report to the House that it has considered the Environmental Impact Assessment (Agriculture) (England) Regulations 2006 (SI 2006/2362). 46th Report from the Merits Committee (Session 2005-06).(Baroness Byford.)
Lord Greaves: I congratulate the noble Baroness, Lady Byford, on bringing this matter to the Grand Committee and thank her for it. It is a complicated set
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In general, this is a sensible transposition of some parts of the environmental impact assessment directive and the habitats directive. It is unfortunate that the computer programmes, be they Defras or those of the Stationery Office, could not get it right. The noble Baroness had her five minutes of fun going through the problems that have arisen and I do not want to repeat what she said.
Lord Greaves: Perhaps it is a good thing that I did not hear that. There are some substantive issues here which are worth looking at. As the noble Baroness said, the regulations re-enact and amend the regulations in relation to uncultivated land and introduce regulations, belatedly perhaps, in relation to restructuring projects on farms. The substantial matter raised by the Merits Committee, which the noble Baroness explained in detail, is the possible lack of clarity about the definition of restructuring projects. It also expressed concern about whether there will be sufficient publicity, and understanding on the part of farmers and land managers, about the requirements of the new regulations.
Defra states that Natural England will provide informal advice, but if one is looking for a clear definition of what something means in law, and it can clearly make a substantial difference to what a farmer or land manager is able to do with their land, informal advice is not entirely satisfactory. What will that advice be and who will decide it?
The regulatory functions in these matters have been transferred from the Rural Development Service in Defra to Natural England. As in all such cases, there is an interesting question of accountability. A lot of people will be monitoring this very carefully. The new arrangements may work, but, if they do not, no doubt we will all be discussing them again.
One or two specific questions arise from the regulations. The first relates to cross-compliance. The regulations relating to uncultivated land are already in the cross-compliance rules and appear again in, I believe, Rule 37. However, the restructuring regulations will not be in the cross-compliance rules. It is stated quite clearly that they will not be included. I do not understand why this is the case. Perhaps the Minister will explain it to my satisfaction.
The second question relates to publicity. My noble friend Lady Miller of Chilthorne Domer would no doubt raise it if she we here, because it relates to website publicity. Quite a few years ago, when we were talking about the CROW Bill, as it then was, whenever the Bill said that there had to be publicity in local newspapers and so on, my noble friend tabled amendments saying, and on the departmental website. The answer we always had then, and that we have had on a number of occasions since in different
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So what we seem to have here is a halfway house where the websites are in one part of the regulations but not in the other. It would be helpful if there was consistency in these matters. We hope that, increasingly, legislation sets out that it does have to be on the website, because that is where nowadays a lot of people look first.
Finally, I hope that the regulations might be useful in the circumstances in parts of the uplands, including the Pennines, where I live, where there are sometimes serious threats to dry stone walls. People find that the income that they can get from hill farming is no longer worth the candle, but they can tear down and sell off the dry stone walls of natural stone for quite large amounts of money. There is a real danger that if hill farming declines significantly under the new regimewe all hope it will not but there is a possibility that it mightpeople will try to asset-strip those marginal farms on the edges of the moorlands in the upland areas, and the dry stone walls will be removed and sold off for astronomical prices to builders. I hope that the regulations might be useful in stopping that. Having said that, in general we support the regulations, and I look forward to hearing the answers to my questions and those asked by the noble Baroness, Lady Byford.
Lord Rooker: I will be happy to try to answer the points raised by the noble Baroness and the noble Lord. There is one minor technical glitch. Both the noble Baroness and the Deputy Chairman read out that the Committee will report that it has considered the Environmental Impact Assessment (Agriculture) (England) Regulations. Neither mentioned the Environmental Impact Assessment (Agriculture) (England) (No. 2) Regulations. I would hate to find that we have spent our time here and have to do it again.
Lord Rooker: Sorry, that is true, but the title of the second regulations has (No. 2) in it. That was not said by either the Deputy Chairman or the noble Baroness when they read it out. I do not want to be called back here again because the Committee failed to consider the regulations that we have been talking about.
The regulations implement parts of the environmental impact assessment directive, which is a very old directive that was introduced in 1985. There is a story to that, which I will repeat in a moment. The directive requires certain types of development projects that are likely to have significant effects on the environment to be subject to environmental impact assessments before they are allowed to proceed. The directive applies to more than 100 different types of project. In the UK, it is implemented mainly through environmental impact assessment rules relating to town and country planning. There are various EIA rules for projects not covered by the planning system, such as transport and forestry projects, and the two types of project to which the EIA agriculture rules apply.
The Environmental Impact Assessment Agriculture (England) Regulations came into force on 10 October 2006. They are a small but significant part of our effort to protect and enhance the rural environment, alongside much larger measures such as agri-environment schemes, SSSIs and cross compliance. The regulations do two things: they replace previous environmental impact assessment rules, which were introduced in 2001, applying to projects for the use of uncultivated land and semi-natural areas for intensive agricultural purposes and they introduce new rules applying to projects for the restructuring of rural land holdings.
We are legally obliged by the environmental impact assessment directive to have these rules, and we were required to introduce them by 1988. But UK transposition did not occur until 2001 for uncultivated land and 2006 for rural restructuring following infraction pressure. I do not want to be part of the blame culture, but there is a history to this. This has been done under infraction pressures, and the regulations have perhaps not ended up as they would have if they had been done properly when they were required to be done in 1988. We thought that they were delayed largely because the policy issues were already addressed by agri-environment schemes, hedgerows legislation and the SSSI rules.
In 2001, Defra introduced environmental impact assessment rules on uncultivated land. They gave a high degree of protection to uncultivated land and semi-natural areas, mainly by having no thresholds, which meant that all relevant projects needed permission before proceeding. Generally speaking, we have a good story to tell on the 2006 regulationsI do not want to over-egg the pudding, but this is a good Defra story for the farming communitywhich were developed with better regulation and Defras farming regulation strategy very much in mind.
The objectives in shaping the regulations were to deliver targeted environmental protection while minimising red tape and to avoid hindering our wider policy objectives. Poorly gauged rules could do more harm than good by deterring farmers from signing up to agri-environment schemes or deterring work that is beneficial to the environment. They might also restrict farmers ability to diversify their businesses and compete and have a negative effect on the rural land market. We are very keen to take away some of the hurdles that prevent farmers diversifying if we can. As the noble Baroness knows, I am having issues related to planning matters looked at at present.
We improved the uncultivated land rules by introducing clearer tests for when projects are caught and by introducing a modest two hectare threshold to give the rules a lighter touch, while still providing a fairly high level of protection for a valuable environmental resource. We estimate that the revised rules will place 20 to 40 per cent less burden on business than the rules they replace.
We introduced the rural restructuring rules under EC infraction pressure. In doing this, we have done all we can to achieve minimum implementation by applying the highest thresholds we reasonably can, given the infraction risk. We have also sought to avoid duplication of existing measures which tackle problematic restructuring, such as the hedgerows regulations and other environmental impact assessment rules applying to planning and forestry. The result is that we have new rules that guard against the possibility of major negative effects on the rural landscape, but will not catch farmers engaged in routine farming activities, which is not our purpose at all.
Successfully lobbied government for the introduction of thresholds into the Environmental Impact Assessment (Agriculture) Regulations 2006. This will mean that fewer farmers should have to go through the EIA screening process unnecessarily.
I also want to address some of the issues relating to the Merits Committee. Briefly, the rules work by requiring that anyone wishing to carry out a project must apply to Natural England for a screening decision. If Natural England decides the project is likely to have a significant effect on the environment, the environmental impact assessment must be prepared by the applicant before Natural England makes a final consent decision. People who breach the rules may face cross-compliance deductions, prosecution, and/or have to take remedial action. The noble Lord, Lord Greaves, raised an issue about stone walls covered by cross compliance or possible deductions for removers over 10 metres. He painted a horrible scenario of what might happen in the uplands, which would not be in anyones interests.
The noble Baroness, Lady Byford, said that she had come to nitpick todayher words, not mine. I do not accuse the noble Baroness of that. I cannot answer all her questions about why the regulations were redone. Obviously, it is much to be regretted that a computer glitch confused the cross-referencing in the initial EIA regulations, so we had to replace them with a corrected set. The rules of a statutory instrument have to be produced compared to a computerised template, in effect, so that the format is the same. The glitch caused the automatic numbering to make an unbidden change at the last moment, which made all the cross-referencing incorrect. Unfortunately, we did not spot the error until a few
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We replaced them free of charge to those people who had paid for them. I do not know how many were distributed. If the noble Baroness pushes me I will seek to find out how many and at what cost. That would cause extra cost to the department, but she is entitled to the answers to the question. On the money for Natural England, 9.4 staff years are budgeted, but, by the way, the fines do not pay for the regulations, which would not be normally the case.
On the way we defined projects for the restructuring of rural land holdings, the committees concern is valid to the extent that we cannot guarantee that farmers will fail to comply accidentally, which is the case with many offences in many laws. To answer the Merits Committees concerns, we are bound by the environmental impact assessment directive introduced in 1985, which does not define what,
means. In transposing the legislation we decided to follow the common practice of simply using the same wording as the directive without further elaboration. This is done, for example, in environmental impact assessment rules on the planning system and forestry. It is also the norm in other EU countriesfor example, Irish and Dutch environmental impact assessment rules take the same approach.
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