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Further to the Written Answer by Baroness Scotland of Asthal on 8 November (WA 197), whether their research into the causes of crime suggests that the disparity of 2:1 in the propensity of males and females to commit crime arises either from social or from biological factors. [HL800]
The Minister of State, Home Office (Baroness Scotland of Asthal): Home Office research into the causes of crime has not included any exploration of the potential role of biological factors in the increased propensity shown by men or women to commit crime.
Research summarised in The Impact of Corrections on Re-offending: A Review of What Works (HORS 291, 2006) discusses a range of factors, or criminogenic needs, predictive of offending in relation to the differences between men and women in the frequency and nature of offending. Evidence suggests that female offenders have higher levels of need in the areas of relationships and emotional well-being, while male offenders had higher levels of need with regard to offending, alcohol misuse, thinking and behaviour and attitudes.
Self-report offending studies have consistently shown that men are more likely to commit offences than women although the gender gap varies according to type of offence. The existing research does not show that the gap is caused solely by social factors or solely by biological factors.
The Home Office has recently published Statistics on Women and the Criminal Justice System which provides further details of the nature of offending carried out by women (http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs06/s95women0405.pdf).
Whether they will discuss with the current European Union presidency how member states will proceed with the second phase of a constitutional treaty, now that 18 member states have ratified the proposed text. [HL1069]
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Lord Triesman): According to the conclusions of the June 2006 European Council, the German presidency will present a report at the June 2007 European Council based on extensive consultations with member states. The report will contain an assessment of the state of discussion on the constitutional treaty and explore possible future developments. We expect these discussions to commence shortly. The Government's approach to these discussions was set out in a Written Ministerial Statement to the House by my right honourable friend the Minister for Europe on 5 December 2006 (Official Report, col. 10WS-11WS).
Whether they will place in the Library of the House a copy of the current guidance issued to immigration officers on the identification procedures to be applied to persons who have covered their faces departing from or arriving in the United Kingdom. [HL1154]
The Minister of State, Home Office (Baroness Scotland of Asthal): Specific operational guidance on the examination of passengers wearing veils or other face coverings is available to immigration officers and states that passengers wearing veils or other face coverings are to be asked to remove the covering in order that they may be identified as the rightful holder of their passport or travel document.
As at 8 December 2006, the latest date for which data are available, there were 170 claimants detained under the detained fast-track (DFT) process of whom 125 were male and 50 were female (figures are rounded to the nearest five). For details of nationality and length of detention, please see the attached table.
National statistics on the total number of people detained under sole Immigration Act powers are published quarterly and annually. Copies are available from the Library of the House and on the Home
15 Jan 2007 : Column WA123
|Nationality||Number of Male Detainees (1)||Average Number of Days in DFT|
|(1) Figures are rounded to the nearest five|
|Nationality||Number of female detainees(1)||Average Number of Days in DFT|
|(1) Figures are rounded to the nearest five|
Whether they have made an assessment of the joint report, The Destination Trap, published on 7 November by Refugee Action and Amnesty International; and, if so, whether they will respond to its conclusions. [HL1024]
The Minister of State, Home Office (Baroness Scotland of Asthal): We understand that the joint report by Refugee Action and Amnesty International published on 7 November 2006 is entitled The Destitution Trap. The Government are aware of the detailed recommendations made in the report, which are directed at a range of government departments and other agencies. It will take them into account
15 Jan 2007 : Column WA124
How they identify prisoners early in their custodial sentences who are European Economic Area (EEA) nationals and in particular long-term resident EEA nationals who enjoy special protections from expulsion; and what steps they have taken to ensure that decisions to deport in weak cases involving those nations are withdrawn. [HL233]
The Minister of State, Home Office (Baroness Scotland of Asthal): On arrival in prisons, HM Prison Service provides the Immigration and Nationality Directorate with details of all foreign national prisoners, and all prisoners whose nationality has not been established, to enable the Immigration and Nationality Directorate to conduct inquiries and confirm nationality.
All foreign national prisoners have the opportunity to provide representations against deportation and long-term residency in the United Kingdom is a factor that is taken into consideration when assessing whether a prisoner from a European Economic Area (EEA) country is liable to deportation. Consideration to deport prisoners from EEA countries is made in accordance with the Immigration (European Economic Area) Regulations 2006.
On 9 October the Secretary of State for the Home Department explained that in view of the interpretation given to current provisions in respect of EEA nationals, HMG will seek to bring forward changes in the law in order to clarify and strengthen the link between criminality and deportation. In the mean time we will ensure that only those cases which have a reasonable prospect of success within the current interpretation of the legislative provisions will be given priority, and robustly pursued.
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