34th REPORT: THE EU AND AFRICA: TOWARDS
A STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP
Department for International Development
and Foreign and Commonwealth Office's Joint Response
We welcome the publication of the European Union
Committee's 34th Report, Session 2005-06: The EU and Africa:
Towards a Strategic Partnership. The Government accepts many
of the Committee's conclusions and recommendations. We appreciate
the important role the Committee has played in highlighting the
continuing need to keep Africa at the top of the European Union's
[Paragraph 442] "We strongly agree that
the problems of Africa's lack of development have been fully analysed
and the necessary actions to be taken identified. The challenge
now is to deliver. It is for the EU, acting under its Strategy
for Africa, to make this happen".
We agree and that is why the UK continues to
push for implementation of the commitments in the Strategy. The
UK is also playing its part. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office
and the Department for International Development (DFID) are leading
efforts across Whitehall government departments to implement specific
areas of the strategy. The Government's recent White Paper on
Making Governance Work for the Poor (Cm 6876) sets out how the
UK will work with others to deliver on the development promises
made last year on Africa at the Gleneagles summit, the UN World
Summit and the European Council.
[Paragraph 443] "The United Kingdom Government,
as promoter of the Strategy, should take the lead in ensuring
that the Strategy is fully implemented".
The leaders of all 25 Member States and the
Commission agreed on the need for a Strategy and on the Strategy
itself. EU partners have praised the UK's input to the Strategy.
The mechanics of the EU are such that the Commission, Council
Secretariat and the rotating Presidency will play a particularly
important role in monitoring implementation. But the UK remains
strongly committed to working closely with all of these to ensure
full implementation. We are actively engaged with the current
Finnish Presidency and are making appropriate contacts with future
Presidencies who will be responsible for ensuring that reviews
of the Strategy are undertaken.
[Paragraph 444] "The EU has to acknowledge
the many challenges noted in this Report and work with the Africa
that exists, and not the Africa that Europeans would like to see.
If this happens, there is a real chance that a genuinely joint
strategy for Africa will emerge and be of value to all concerned".
The Report identifies many challenges to progress
on the Strategy for Africa and to African efforts to build a peaceful,
democratic and prosperous future. The EU Africa Strategy is founded
on the principles of partnership and African ownership to ensure
that the EU works with the Africa that exists. As the new joint
strategy is negotiated with the African Union we will continue
to urge that these principles are respected.
[Paragraph 445] "We believe that a second
EU-Africa Summit is important for enlisting African support at
the highest level for the establishment of a strategic partnership,
and to ensure that EU policies are in line with African objectives.
A second Summit would also considerably enhance prospects for
the effective implementation of the Strategy. The should continue
to explore avenues to enable the holding of the Summit In the
meantime, the EU should vigorously pursue all other mechanisms
for dialogue with Africa in particular, but not solely, through
the ministerial Troika meetings".
We look forward to the holding of the next EU-Africa
Summit as soon as possible. The Summit must be well prepared in
advance, and the issue of Zimbabwean attendance needs to be resolved
satisfactorily. Any solution should be consistent with the EU's
Common Position on Zimbabwe and the travel ban list. The EU has
encouraged African states to propose creative solutions which
respect EU policy.
As set out in the Strategy, and more recently
in a written declaration at the June 2006 European Council, we
are committed to the EU/Africa dialogue. Regular meetings are
held between the European Union and African Union (AU). In our
experience, we have found the troika format to be the most effective
format. We are nevertheless open to practical solutions for further
enhancement of the dialogue. One method could be further meetings
between the EU and African ambassadors in Brussels. Our main concern
is the necessity for the AU, in keeping with its own decision-making
process, to be able to focus on priorities. We would therefore
welcome co-ordination being focused in Addis Ababa as well as
contact in Brussels.
[Paragraph 446] "In providing detailed
targets the joint implementation matrix agreed in Vienna on 8
May is an important development in the implementation of the EU
Strategy. We agree that it also has symbolic value due to its
joint formulation by both the EU and the AU. However, it remains
essential for realisation of the partnership that a full joint
EUAfrica strategy be agreed by heads of state and government,
preferably at a second EU-Africa Summit".
The Finnish Presidency is discussing this with
the African Union. We expect to see an outline document in October.
[Paragraph 447] "The matrix should specify,
in relation to each commitment, who exactly within the EU is responsible
for its implementation. Where there is joint responsibility between
the Commission and the Council, further details should be provided
as to what action each institution will take".
The Commission, Council Secretariat and Member
States will continue to use their regular contacts to ensure coherent
and coordinated implementation of the different commitments in
the Strategy. The Finnish Presidency is discussing the level of
detail to be recorded in the matrix, including on identified commitments,
with Member States and the Commission.
[Paragraph 448] "The focus on the EDF
as the primary source of funding for the Strategy for Africa is
understandable but not inevitable, Although certain sources of
funding, including from Member States through the CFSP budget
and bilateral assistance, cannot be incorporated into plans being
drawn up by EU officials, the EDF is not the only budget available
to the EU The proposed new financial instruments, once agreed,
should also be available for fulfilling the commitments under
Negotiations continue between the Council, Commission
and the European Parliament, but it looks likely that the Commission
will be able to draw on six of nine external spending financial
instruments to help fulfil the commitments under the Strategy.
[Paragraph 449] "In making proposals
for new initiatives under the Strategy, the Commission should
determine which source of funding would be most suitable for each
initiative, and justify that decision as part of its proposal".
This is standard Commission practice.
[Paragraph 450] "We welcome the EU's
commitment to including information on Member State bilateral
aid within the joint implementation matrix".
The Finnish Presidency is discussing the level
of detail to be recorded in the matrix, including on identified
commitments, with Member States and the Commission.
[Paragraph 451] "Close monitoring and
review by the Council of Ministers of the commitments made in
the EU Strategy for Africa are essential for its implementation.
The Strategy and its implementation should be reviewed annually,
with progress measured against the more specific commitments set
in the joint implementation matrix".
We agree that it will be important for the Council
to monitor closely and review implementation of the Strategy.
The matrix will provide a valuable tool against which to judge
progress. An initial review will be undertaken at the December
2006 European Council. Reviews by Head of Government are envisaged
at least every two years thereafter, as agreed at the December
2005 European Council. We see this as a satisfactory way forward.
We anticipate, and if necessary will press for, less formal reviews
through the EU Council Of Ministers (Foreign and Development Ministers)
and through the regular EU-AU dialogues.
[Paragraph 452] "In the absence of a
second EU-Africa Summit, the dialogue and co-operation which has
taken place at all levels between the EU and AU has been a positive
development and its continuation will be essential to the implementation
of the EU Strategy for Africa. Dialogue needs to be pursued more
widely outside the level of the two Commissions and the Ministerial
The response above to Paragraph 445 explains
the importance of the EU Africa dialogue and steps towards a second
EU Africa Summit. The Report suggests greater interaction on a
parliamentary and civil society basis. Parliamentary discussions
on issues affecting Africa are held through the Joint Parliamentary
Assembly. In addition, organisations such as the inter Parliamentary
Union or Commonwealth Parliamentary Association work to ensure
individual member states' parliamentarians work with their opposite
numbers. Relationships between civil society in Africa and in
Europe are also important. The UK encourages such links through
DFID's Civil Society Fund.
[Paragraph 453] "Although it is essential
that the EU engage with all the various institutions within Africa,
the African Union is the organisation which can best promote a
pan-African consensus and the EU is accordingly right to focus
on the AU as its principal partner in the EU-Africa dialogue".
The EU's ideal partner is the AU, hence the
EU's focus on this relationship. However it is important to remember
that not all countries in Africa belong to the African Union.
Provision should be made to ensure all African countries are involved
in dialogue with the EU. On some issues including trade there
is a role for the regional bodies. They may have, on specifics,
more latitude than the AU.
[Paragraph 454] "The EU should continue
to make every effort to engage with the sub-regional organisations
as well as with the AU".
Sub regional organisations are invited to discussions
with the European Commission regularly, for example on Economic
Partnership Agreements and regional European Development Fund
(EDF) planning meetings. The EU helps to build the capacity of
sub-regional organisations and the AU through the EDF.
It should be noted that African Heads of State
have agreed to rationalise some of Africa's regional economic
communities and organisations. The EU supports this decision and
we think it is vital.
[Paragraph 455] "The EU should, working
in co-operation with the African Union, find ways to better engage
all elements of civil society in African countries in putting
forward ideas for implementation of the EU Strategy for Africa".
Effective consultation with civil society organisations
is highlighted in the European Consensus on Development and in
EC programming guidelines. We recognise the importance of engaging
African civil society organisations in the development of African
countries. This is why we encourage African countries to engage
with such organisations when consulting on their national plans
for poverty reduction.
The UK supports the African Monitor initiative,
led by the Archbishop of Capetown, which aims to establish a civil
society network across Africa to monitor implementation of, and
the impact of, African and donor commitments to support the continent.
[Paragraph 456] "The Commission should
seek to strengthen its delegations throughout Africa in order
to enable full implementation of the Strategy This will require
increased numbers of staff in some delegations, and improved levels
of training and expertise".
This is a matter for the Commission, but we
agree that delegations should be strengthened whenever appropriate
[Paragraph 457] "The EU should create
a more unified structure for the different functions performed
by the Commission and the Council Secretariat in Addis Ababa.
There should be a single overall EU mission which brings together
expertise on development, governance and security, and which can
be an effective interlocutor with the AU on all these matters".
EU representation in Addis Ababa should be made
as effective as possible. Current EU representatives from both
the Commission and the Council are doing excellent work, but their
impact could be increased by a more coherent approach. The UK
strongly supports increased co-ordination between Council secretariat
and Commission officials in Addis, but care must be taken not
to "combine" their distinct roles.
[Paragraph 458] "All EU and Member State
missions based in Africa, especially to the African Union, should
share their expertise and co-ordinate their structures in order
to ensure a harmonised approach to relations with each African
state and regional organisation".
We agree with the recommendation that EU Member
States and the European Commission can work better together. And
this is already happening. The UK and other Member States participate
in a staff exchange programme to help share expertise. A joint
donor office has been set up in southern Sudan, including representatives
from UK, Netherlands and Sweden, and joint strategies are being
agreed between the Commission, Member States and other donors
in several countries (eg in South Africa), supporting African
countries' own priorities. The UK is involved.
The priority is to get all bilateral and multilateral
donors in a country to work together behind a nationally agreed
and nationally owned poverty reduction strategy or plan. Different
donors will be best placed to play a coordinating role in different
countries. We will encourage the European Commission to take on
this responsibility where appropriate.
[Paragraph 459] "There should be close
co-ordination and regular meetings held between the Special Representatives
based in Africa and the relevant Commission delegations".
The EU's and Presidency's Special Representatives
and the Commission work closely together, both in Brussels and
on the ground. The UK is supportive of such co-ordination. We
are content with the way each Special Representative (Mano River
Union, the Sudan and the Great Lakes) interacts with the Commission,
Council Secretariat and Member States.
THE EU AND
[Paragraph 460] "Some rationalisation
of both European and African institutional structures will be
necessary to avoid duplication and turf fighting. The EU should
consider how best it can rationalise its own institutions and
instruments and the way they work".
The African Union, the European Commission and
EU and AU Member States have made clear that African regional
organisations need to be rationalised and that AU and NEPAD need
to work well together. The UK welcomes the decisions made at the
July 2006 Banjul AU summit not to recognise more Regional Economic
Communities and to integrate NEPAD into AU. We look forward to
full implementation of these important decisions. We are however
concerned that the effectiveness of NEPAD and the RECs should
not be impaired during this period of uncertainty.
The UK strongly supports of joined-up working
between EU institutions working on Africa. It is important that
the distinctions between pillar one and two activities are clearly
maintained and competences respected. Provided there is adequate
communication, coordination and cooperation, duplication and turf-fighting
can be avoided within existing European institutional structures.
The EU is currently in the process of rationalising its external
actions instruments. The Fundamental Review of the Budget in 2008-09
and continuing discussion on the Constitutional Treaty will provide
further opportunities to review the EU Budget and structures.
[Paragraph 461] "We endorse the principle
of strengthened co-ordination between the Member States and institutions
of the European Union and urge the United Kingdom Government to
engage fully with the Commission and other Member States in the
implementation of the Strategy for Africa".
See Paragraph 458
[Paragraph 462] "Zimbabwe underscores
the problems relating to the political weakness of the AU; the
failure of the AU to respond robustly to the situation in Zimbabwe
presents a major challenge".
The African Union has made attempts to grapple
with the Zimbabwe crisis. In 2005, following "Operation Murambatsvina"
(the mass housing demolitions by the Zimbabwe government), the
AU sent a Special Envoy, Tom Nyanduga, to Harare. The AU Chairman,
President Obasanjo of Nigeria, nominated former Mozambican President
Chissano to facilitate a dialogue of national unity in Zimbabwe.
Sadly, the Zimbabwe government rebuffed both initiatives, but
the AU's willingness to engage on the issue is something that
can and should be built upon.
It is also encouraging that the African Commission
on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR) issued a resolution in December
2005 which condemned the human rights violations currently being
perpetrated in Zimbabwe. At its July 2006 Banjul Summit, the AU
asked the Zimbabwe government to respond to this resolution.
The EU regularly raises Zimbabwe with the AU,
with SADC and with individual African states, urging African action.
UK Ministers meet African leaders in their frequent travels to
Africa, at international meetings and in the UK. Zimbabwe is regularly
among the topics discussed.
[Paragraph 463] "EU engagement with the
AU should recognise the progress in Africa that the AU represents,
as well as the scale of the challenges which it faces".
Agreed. Africa's move from the Organisation
of African Unity with its policy of non-interference to the African
Union and its policy of non-indifference, is significant progress.
The AU is growing in competence in the area of peace and security
and is increasingly doing so in other areas. It is important that
we continue to support capacity building of the African Union
at a pace and level that the AU Commission can utilise effectively.
The EU recognises that progress in Africa is challenging but has
committed through the Strategic Partnership to work with and to
support African countries and the African Union in this task.
[Paragraph 464] "The EU must support
the AU's efforts to rationalise both its internal functions and
its interaction with other African institutions".
The European Commission has set aside a possible
55 million to be committed by 2007, to support African Union
institutional capacity building and a separate proportion of the
Africa Peace Facility to support capacity building under the peace
and security architecture. The UK is willing to contribute to
joint funding once the African Union is able to demonstrate that
adequate public financial management procedures and functioning
systems are in place.
[Paragraph 465] "EU budgetary assistance
to the AU should take account of the level of support provided
by the African Union countries themselves, Over time, the EU should
oversee a process whereby the AU's financial requirements are
fully met by its own member states".
Agreed. It is important that African countries
continue to take responsibility for their international institutions
and pay their dues to the African Union and contribute more robustly
to the voluntary element of the budget.
[Paragraph 466] "The EU should use its
dialogue with China to encourage the Chinese to participate in
encouraging reform in African states in the areas of governance,
democracy and human rights".
Increased trade and investment is essential
to Africa's progress towards achieving the Millennium Development
Goals. China, as a global economic power with a significant and
growing economic relationship with Africa, has a key role. We
welcome China's publication in January 2006 of a China-Africa
Strategy as an indication of her growing engagement and we encourage
China to play a full and active role in multilateral fora relating
to Africa and in country level donor groups. The EU hopes to agree
a structured ongoing dialogue with China on Africa, including
with a view to developing practical cooperation on the ground.
All of Africa's partners need to work in Africa in a way that
reinforces the principles outlined in Africa's own New Partnership
for Africa's Development agendaimproved peace and security,
democracy, transparency, economic competitiveness and sustainable
development. We welcome Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao's comments
in South Africa in June that China "encourages African countries
to improve democracy and the rule of law and to maintain social
justice and equality".
[Paragraph 467] "The EU should continue
to seek international backing for its work in Africa through the
United Nations in order to gain the approval and assistance of
third countries for that works".
Paragraph 3 of the Report notes that achievement
of the Millennium Development Goals, as agreed by the international
community in the UN, is at the heart of the Strategy. Therefore
the EU's work in Africa has the broad backing of the UN. But the
UK agrees the EU should look for opportunities to reinforce and
consolidate that support in relevant UN fora.
[Paragraph 468] "The EU and its Member
States must work with all relevant UN agencies in both policy
formation and programme delivery in a genuine spirit of co-operation".
Paragraph 34 of the 2005 European Consensus
on Development states that the EU will work in close cooperation
with multilateral players such as the United Nations to prevent
duplication of efforts and to maximise the impact and effectiveness
of global aid.
[Paragraph 469] "It is essential that
the EU, through its Member States, encourages the international
finance institutions and the OECD to take into account the development
and security needs of Africa in formulating and implementing their
International institutions such as the World
Bank and African Development Bank are required to take into account
the development needs of Africa when formulating and implementing
their policies. The OECD ensures this is the case through its
partnership dialogue with UN Economic Commission for Africa. The
UK consistently raises the needs of developing countries in meetings
with these institutions. In ensuring the needs of Africa are taken
into account in international institutions' policy making it is
also important that there is greater African voice. The EU has
committed in paragraph 54 of the 2005 European Consensus on Development
to promote the enhancement of the voice of developing countries
in international institutions. For example, the UK has provided
support to the Least Developed Country Group within the World
[Paragraph 470] "The EU Commission's
participation in the Africa Partnership Forum should be used to
ensure that unnecessary duplication of efforts by its members
and the EU is avoided".
In order to help the Africa Partnership Forum
carry out its role of monitoring implementation of international
commitments made to and by Africa, an Africa Partnership Forum
Support Unit has been set up. It is based in, but independent
from, the OECD in Paris. The UK was instrumental in setting up
this Support Unit and we are providing 20% of its funds. This
Support Unit is due to issue its first report at the next meeting
of the Forum on 26-27 October 2006 in Moscow (not in the UK as
suggested in box 5 on page 20). This first report will focus on
delivery by Forum members of commitments made on the themes discussed
at the last meeting in Maputo in May: HIV and AIDS, infrastructure
and agriculture. The Support Unit will draw on a range of sources
to compile its monitoring reports, including the EU-Africa matrix.
The monitoring reports of the Africa Partnership
Forum Support Unit and the sharing of information in these meetings
will give members a better overview of each others' work. The
European Commission and 13 EU Member States are members of the
Forum. This Forum should help avoid unnecessary duplication of
efforts, including between the EU and other partners.
[Paragraph 471] "Through its member states,
the Forum should work with the EU, particularly in seeking to
formulate complementary policies and ensure that their activities
are carried out in a co-ordinated fashion avoiding unnecessary
As outlined above, the monitoring reports of
APF Support Unit and the sharing of information in APF meetings
should give members a better overview of each others' work. This
should help encourage individual APF members to formulate complementary
policies, coordinate activities and avoid unnecessary duplication
of efforts. The APF is of course not a policy-making or implementing
[Paragraph 472] "We commend the EU's
commitment to policy coherence for development and agree that
the EU's policies, particularly under the Strategy for Africa,
should be formulated taking into account their potential impact
upon developing countries".
[Paragraph 473] "The European Commission
should continue to facilitate discussions on coherence between
different Directorates-General. Commission officials should consider
the potential impact of their proposals on developing countries
at the outset and be prepared to justify their proposals in public,
including any negative impact they might have".
We welcome the EU's commitment to take account
of the objectives of development co-operation in all polices which
are likely to affect developing countries as set out in the Treaty
of the European Council and the European Consensus for Development.
To ensure this happens, the UK will continue to work with the
Commission and other Member States to ensure the Commission makes
full use of existing internal procedures such as the inter-Service
quality Support Group, policy coherence working groups and the
impact assessment process. All Commission proposals are published
and subject to scrutiny and debate by Member States and the European
[Paragraph 474] "The EU must work with
African partners, as well as co-ordinating its internal activities,
to ensure that its policies are coherent across the whole of Africa".
The UK will continue to work to ensure that
the Commission makes full use of existing internal procedures
such as the inter-Service Quality Support Group, policy coherence
working groups and the impact assessment process to ensure that
its policies are coherent across the whole of Africa. The EU should
also use its regular dialogue with the AU and the RECs to this
[Paragraph 475] "We welcome the EU Member
States' commitments to increase aid and to ensure that half of
that increase goes to Africa. We are, however, concerned that
some Member States will not be able to meet their commitments.
We reiterate the recommendation in our recent Report on the Millennium
Review Summit that monitoring procedures should be rigorously
applied in order to ensure that the pledges made by all Member
States are met".
We support the Committee's emphasis on close
monitoring of the 2005 aid volume commitments. The Commission
produces an annual evaluation of Member State progress against
aid volume commitments made since 2002. The evaluation is then
discussed by the Council of Ministers each Spring.
[Paragraph 476] "A major review exercise
should be conducted by the Commission in 2010 to determine whether
Member States are meeting their commitments. If they are not,
the Commission should put forward constructive ideas for reaching
the 2015 target including, if necessary, increases in the EDF
and the EC's development budget".
The EU undertakes an annual review of its commitments
under the 2002 Monterrey Consensus on Financing for Development
and the May 2005 Commitments. The Council undertook its most recent
review in April 2006. This process provides the opportunity to
review Member States' progress towards meeting their aid volume
commitments. We fully expect progress to be reviewed in 2010 as
it is every year. It remains to be seen whether the review in
2010 will be different to usual. But we will encourage constructive
ideas to make progress should the EU be off track from meeting
the 2015 target.
[Paragraph 477] "The United Kingdom Government
should set a positive example by being open and transparent in
the way in which they achieve their own target; and should encourage
others to do the same".
The new International Development (Reporting
and Transparency) Bill introduced as a Private Member's Bill by
Mr Tom Clarke MP in June 2005 and which recently passed into law
will increase transparency in the reporting of international development
in the UK. The Department for International Development will provide
Parliament with an annual report on the level, poverty focus and
coherence of the Government's international development policy
and expenditure, and their contribution towards reaching the Millennium
[Paragraph 478] "We agree that, in the
context of the EU Strategy for Africa, EU donors must take a more
coordinated approach to delivery of aid".
See paragraph 458.
[Paragraph 479] "Effective co-ordination
and harmonisation is essential for the EU when dealing with Africa
compared with leaving the many challenges to be resolved by numerous
European states acting independently of each other".
See Paragraph 458.
[Paragraph 480] "ln relation to individual
beneficiary countries, the needs and wishes of the particular
country must determine who takes the lead in that co-ordination.
In many cases the Commission will be the most appropriate coordinator
of donor activity and should be allowed to so act by the Member
The priority is to get all bilateral and
multilateral donors in a country to work together behind a
nationally agreed and nationally owned poverty reduction strategy
or plan. Different donors will be best placed to play a coordinating
role in different countries. We will encourage the EC to take
on this responsibility where appropriate.
[Paragraph 481] "In relation to overall
EU development assistance the Commission is best placed to analyse
global distribution and remedy any imbalances. Under the Strategy
for Africa the Commission should carry out a detailed analysis
of how Member States' combined ODA is being spent and produce
a report specifying how better co-ordination could help to achieve
the Strategy's objectives".
The Commission uses OECD/DAC data to produce
a regular analysis of the global distribution of EC and Member
State aid in the form of its Donor Atlas. We support the principle
that the EC should take the overall provision of aid into account
when allocating its resources and pay particular attention to
under-aided countries. The Commission is due to publish a progress
report on implementation of the Strategy in the autumn. We would
welcome suggestions from the Commission about ways to accelerate
achievement of the Strategy's objectives.
[Paragraph 482] "The Commission should
present a communication setting out how it intends to fulfil its
commitments under the Paris Declaration on aid effectiveness for
consideration in Council before the end of 2006".
In March 2006 the Commission presented a package
of Communications including "EU Aid: Delivering more better
and faster" (COM 2006 (87)) which set out how the Commission
and EU as a whole could fulfil its commitments under the Paris
Declaration. In April the Council welcomed the proposals and agreed
on the importance of implementing without delay the commitments
and principles set out in the Paris Declaration.
[Paragraph 483] "We agree that budget
support provides a better means of supporting the aim of African
ownership in the Strategy for Africa than programme support".
Budget support is a key tool for the UK and
the European Commission's development assistance in developing
countries. Paragraph 26 of the 2005 European Consensus on Development
sets out the Commission and Member States' commitment to increasing
the use of general or sectoral budget support where circumstances
permit. This includes where the assessment of the effectiveness
of the recipient government's systems and practices and level
of risk is acceptable, and where appropriate steps are in place
to mitigate and monitor the risks. In 2004, 27% of the commitments
made under the 9th EDF were in the form of budget support.
[Paragraph 484] "NEPAD could devise
a programme to support parliamentary oversight of ODA spending
in Africa whilst EU (including Member State) parliamentarians
should share their expertise and experiences. AWEPA, the organisation
of European Parliamentarians for Africa, is already going some
way towards achieving this, but its resources are limited".
Parliament to parliament contacts and networking
is to be encouraged. The Pan-African Parliament, the European
Parliament, national parliaments On Africa and Europe), and parliamentary
organisations such as AWEPA all have a role to play based on their
various comparative advantages. There is also a Joint Parliamentary
Assembly bringing together parliamentarians from African, Caribbean,
Pacific (ACP) countries and Members of the European Parliament.
The UK supported a meeting of parliamentarians
from Africa, Europe and the G8 during 2005 to discuss their role
in holding their own governments to account. The UK is currently
considering how best to support the Pan-African Parliament directly.
[Paragraph 485] "Further consideration
should be given by EU Member States to direct budget aid, including
an examination of the Governance and Economic Management Assistance
Programme (GEMAP) and its potential to control finances in poorly
governed African states".
Paragraph 26 of the 2005 European Consensus
on Development sets out the Commission and Member States' commitment
to increasing the use of general or sectoral budget support where
circumstances permit. We agree that useful lessons can be learned
from GEMAP and in specific cases applied in other African countries.
[Paragraph 486] "The implementation of
governance initiatives requires a better understanding of what
constitutes good governance. The EU should work with Africans
and the international community to achieve a common definition
of good governance".
The European Commission's Communication on Governance
released on 30 August offers a broad definition of good governance.
The EC also proposes. that Member States and the Community agree
practices and principles for dialogue and cooperation with developing
countries on governance. The UK is committed to supporting good
governance as stated in its White Paper "Making Governance
Work for the Poor", We will continue to work with our partner
countries and other donors to achieve this aim.
[Paragraph 487] "We believe that the
APRM (African Peer Review Mechanism] holds great potential to
make a significant difference in enhancing good governance in
Africa. The EU should take a close interest in the development
of the APRM, with a focus on helping the Africans to develop it
It is important that the EU acknowledge the scale of the challenges
facing the APRM".
The EU will support the APRM secretariat and
is hoping to be able to support the reforms that come out of the
peer review's recommendations through support in country. The
30 August Communication on governance proposes how the EU might
support the APRM including from the 10th EDF.
The UK has provided $2 million to the APRM Secretariat
Trust Fund. At country level in Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda we have
also provided support to the national process underpinning the
review. We fully recognise the difficulties in implementing such
a peer review and are providing support where possible and feasible.
[Paragraph 488] "The EU needs to encourage
more AU member states to participate in the APRM. It should provide
programming and other support for countries participating positively
in the APRM process, both as part of the reporting process and
in terms of support for the implementation of recommendations
The EU has an important role to play in supporting
Africa in taking forward its plans with respect to improving governance
as set out in its recent Communication on Governance. Measures
include supporting the African Union and Africa Peer Review process
and the emergent national plans of action. We believe such support
should be conducted within the existing framework of co-operation
at country level and aligned to the budget and planning processes
of the country.
[Paragraph 489] "The EU should also,
when allocating aid, take account of whether countries participate
in, and implement the recommendations of, the APRM".
It is not appropriate for allocations of aid
to be based on whether a country has signed up to a mutual peer
review process. However in its governance initiative, European
Commission allocations of aid from the 10th European Development
Fund will include an incentive tranche linked to good governance.
The UK in its recent White Paper has also said it will focus further
on countries with good governance.
[Paragraph 490] "However, EU engagement
with the APRM should be careful not to undermine African ownership
of the process. Accordingly, the EU should not seek to influence
the outcome of Peer Reviews nor to specify the means by which
countries implement any recommendations made".
The UK's consistent line is that donor support
for the APRM should not undermine African ownership. Rather support
should be conducted within the existing framework of co-operation
at country level and aligned to the budget and planning processes
of the country itself.
[Paragraph 491] "The EU should make robust
use of existing provisions under Cotonou on governance issues".
[Paragraph 492] "However, the fact that
Cotonou primarily engages at the country level on issues of governance
provides significant potential for useful dialogue".
The EU has used the provisions of the ACP-EC
(Cotonou) Partnership Agreement to address breaches of the essential
elements (human rights, democratic principles, the rule of law)
and/or the fundamental element (corruption) in a number of countries.
The revision of the Agreement in 2005 included an enhancement
of the provisions for regular political dialogue (Article 8),
with the objective of strengthening relations between the parties
and preventing situations arising where a breach of the Agreement
might be considered. The EC also holds dialogue with ACP states
on migration issues under the terms of Article 13 of the Cotonou
[Paragraph 493] "The programming process
for the 10th EDF can be used effectively to support good governance:
extra funds should be made available for countries that commit
themselves to promoting good governance; consultations under Article
96 of the Cotonou Agreement should be invoked for countries that
are failing to promote good governance, although the emphasis
should be on dialogue in the first instance".
The EU Governance Initiative is a positive step
forward. The Governance Initiative will allocate part of the 10th
European Development Fund on the basis of governance performance.
We believe the Governance Initiative could be further improved
by ensuring wider consultation during the compilation of governance
profiles for each country. We are pushing for a review of the
Governance Initiative in 2007 with all key stakeholders.
[Paragraph 494] "The EU should use dialogue
with the AU to encourage and assist the AU's governance role.
The EU is also well-placed to support the continued development
of the AU's institutional capacity in this area. Co-ordinated
bilateral agreements within the framework of the EU Strategy for
Africa should encourage AU Member States to take forward and implement
the political commitments it has made to promoting good governance".
The EU will continue to provide assistance in
this area both through regular dialogue and financial support.
[Paragraph 495] "European efforts to
support governance through Cotonou and the European Neighbourhood
Policy should be sufficiently flexible to accommodate diverse
levels of governance in different African states, and should support
relevant African structures".
The above-mentioned Commission Communication
on Governance is not limited to sub-Saharan Africa and recognises
diverse levels of governance within and beyond Africa.
[Paragraph 496] "A firm response by the
AU to the situation in Zimbabwe is critical to the credibility
of the institution as an effective mechanism to promote human
rights in Africa and as a viable interlocutor for the EU: The
EU should strongly support any such response by the AU in relation
As indicated in Paragraph 462 the African Union
has made some attempt to respond to the Zimbabwe situation. The
EU continues to encourage the AU to do more and will certainly
strongly support any further response.
[Paragraph 497] "We commend those leaders
who have demonstrated a commitment to good governance and expect
that the EU will support them in sharing best practice with their
The EU strongly encourages sharing of best practice,
and the Africa Peer Review Mechanism is such a tool. The EU also
recognises the constructive role that can be played by significant
regional actors, such as South Africa, where the EU is in the
process of discussing a Strategic Partnership that reflects its
prominent role in the region.
[Paragraph 498] "Implementation of the
EU Strategy for Africa should support the involvement of civil
society in the promotion of governance in Africa, particularly
the role of African civil society groups in helping to build African
institutional capacity in this area at national, sub-regional
and continental levels".
Effective consultation with civil society organisations
is highlighted in the European Consensus on Development and EC
programming guidelines. We recognise the importance of engaging
African civil society organisations in development of Africa.
This is why we encourage African countries to engage with such
organisations when consulting on their national plans for poverty
The UK welcomes and has provided support for
the African Monitor initiative, led by the Archbishop of Cape
Town, which aims to establish a civil society network across Africa
to monitor implementation of, and the impact of, African and donor
commitments to support the continent.
[Paragraph 499] "We commend the
AU's various initiatives to promote peace in Darfur, which should
be helpful in providing the political context for a peace process
in the region but, sadly, we acknowledge that the violence continues
in many areas and that the AU has suffered from severe resource
and logistical constraints The EU should urge the AU to co-operate
with the UN in planning a UN peacekeeping operation in Darfur".
The AU's contributions both in facilitating
the peace talks and brokering the Darfur Peace Agreement, and
in deploying AMIS (African Mission in Sudan) have been immensely
important. The EU is a strong supporter of the AU's efforts. The
Africa Peace Facility is providing a large proportion of the finance
(the UK is also of course a large bilateral donor); the EU, AU
and UN co-hosted a donors' conference for AMIS in July; and EU
experts are involved in providing direct technical assistance
as part of the EU's supporting action to AMIS. But it is clear
now the AU mandate is too wide for current force structures, and
the AU has stated that it intends to hand over the mission to
the UN. The EU supports this plan and has offered encouragement
to the AU Commission and UN Department of Peace Keeping Operations
(DPKO) joint planning mission which took place from 9-23 June
2006. The Security Council pawed UNSCR 1706 on 31 August which
called for a UN force for Darfur. Major diplomatic efforts remain
focussed on gaining Sudanese acceptance for the new force. The
EU and the UK are assisting where we can.
[Paragraph 500] "We believe that
ESDP missions have been an effective means of promoting peace
and security in Africa and should continue to be deployed where
appropriate. EU Battlegroups have the potential to play a significant
role in supporting peace operations in Africa".
The EU is operationally active in Africa. In
addition to the supporting action to AMIS in Darfur, it has three
operations/missions in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC):
EUFOR continues to provide support to the UN over the election
period, EUSEC is providing support in the area of Security Sector
Reform (SSR) and assisting with the payment of DRC soldiers' salaries,
and EUPOL Kinshasa is monitoring and mentoring Congolese police
units. These activities demonstrate the effective and important
role that the EU is playing in international efforts to promote
stability. This will be complemented by the significant role EU
Battlegroups will be able to fulfil on reaching full operational
capacity in January 2007. They will be able to deploy globally,
including in Africa, in response to a sudden crisis. This capacity
should be in addition to the EU's ability to generate forces,
including reserves, when timescales permit.
[Paragraph 501] "The EU should continue
its efforts to develop integrated approaches to peace and security
initiatives in Africa, developing more systematic co-ordination
with the UN, with NATO and with other operational partners".
The EU is currently considering specific measures
to implement the EU Africa Strategy in the field of peace and
security. The UK is encouraging principles of co-ordination with
other key actors to be included in EU implementation strategies.
The division of labour between the EU and NATO in assisting AMIS
(providing capability and support for civilian policing elements
and logistics provision respectively) is a good example of where
co-ordination has worked to good effect. Co-operation and co-ordination
with UN, G8, NATO and other donors on capacity building for AU
and Sub-Regional Organisations are also being developed in the
context of support for the African Standby Force.
[Paragraph 502] "We believe that the
Africa Peace Facility has made a very significant contribution
to African-led promotion of peace and stability in Africa and
welcome its renewal as part of the 10th EDF. The review process
for the APF should evaluate the status of the African Standby
Force and the other elements of the Africa peace and security
architecture, in deciding how to take the APF forward beyond 2010.
If necessary, the EU should be prepared to supplement the current
APF in the meantime".
The UK strongly agrees that the Africa Peace
Facility (APF) has made a remarkable impact on the ability of
the AU to promote peace and security. It has been the key external
factor in allowing the AU to deploy a peace support mission to
Darfur. The decision to renew and reinforce the APF is an important
contribution to the international community's commitment to provide
predictable, flexible and long term financing for African Peace
Support Operations. The UK also considers that the APF has a vital
role to play in helping fund longer-term capacity-building within
the AU and the sub-regional organisations and agrees that the
developing security architecture will need to be carefully considered
when the future of the APF is considered beyond 2010.
[Paragraph 503] "The EU must continue
to assist in operationalising the African Standby Force by supporting
the establishment of its key components in Addis Ababa and in
the RECs. Capacity-building programmes for the ASF should pay
careful attention to the specific functions of the AU relative
to other operational partners active in Africa, based on a broader
process to develop a more rationalised, interlocking and integrated
international peacekeeping system; this will help to maximise
the effectiveness both of African capability and donor support
for capacity building".
The UK agrees that the EU has an important role
to play in helping to develop African Standby Force structures.
The EU is already playing a key part in funding policy workshops
and in co-ordinating donor input (including non-EU) in Addis.
It will become increasingly important for international donors
to act in a complementary and co-ordinated way, especially as
plans develop in the UN on the UN Secretary General's 10-year
capacity building plan for the AU, and in the light of future
co-operation with NATO. EU support for African Standby Force development
through the Africa Peace Facility will continue to be based on
dialogue with the AU on priorities in their plans, and will focus
on the areas where the AU carries the most comparative advantage.
[Paragraph 504] "The EU is well placed
to provide institutional support to build the AU's preventive
capacity and should ensure that capacity building programmes support
the preventive components of the African peace and security architecture
effectively, paying particular attention to civilian and police
Preventive capacity is just as important, if
not more important than conflict management capacity. Some EU
member states (including the UK) are already engaging with the
AU on their developing plans for realising the full range of the
African Peace and Security Architecture, including the Panel of
the Wise and the Continental Early Warning System. The EU through
the Africa Strategy has shown that it stands ready to support
this growing preventive capacity through the capacity building
funds available in the APF. Assistance to develop the civilian
policing components of peace support missions is already underway,
with EU police officers deployed with AMIS in Darfur, and parallel
work to boost capacity at the AU headquarters in Addis to deploy
and manage civilian policing elements.
[Paragraph 505] "We believe that the
EU has a key role to play both in helping to build the peace and
security capacity of the AU and in providing direct, operational
support in Africa where necessary. Achieving an appropriate balance
between the provision of operational support and longer term support
for indigenous, African structures should be a key component of
EU policy, taking into account the roles of other key partners
in this area".
The EU and other international support for initiatives
to promote peace and security in Africa must recognise that lasting
stability will be most effectively achieved through strong African
political leadership in mediating and resolving violent conflicts.
The EU Africa Strategy makes clear that commitments will be implemented
wherever possible in support of African plans and initiatives
to provide long-term capacity to tackle conflict. However, pressures
will continue to respond to immediate conflicts and instability,
either with support for AU deployments or via direct EU deployments.
Member states will need to weigh carefully proposals that funds
for longer-term capacity building be diverted to immediate operational
needs, both within the EU and in other international fora.
[Paragraph 506] "The EU should find ways
to engage across the whole spectrum of activities supporting security
sector reform initiatives in Africa".
During the UK Presidency, the EU agreed a generic
concept for undertaking ESDP support to security sector reform.
The Commission recently published its own guidelines. Taken together,
they provide a comprehensive framework for EU support. As mentioned
above, the EU is also operationally active in security sector
reform through its EUSEC mission in the DRC. This mission is widely
regarded as being effective not only in the delivery of support,
but also as a means of co-ordinating the international community's
efforts. The EU stands ready to consider other cases as appropriate.
Under the current Finnish Presidency, the EU is also examining
ways in which it might enhance its ability to support Demobilisation,
Disarmament and Reintegration (DDR) in Africa and elsewhere.
[Paragraph 507] "The EU and AU must work
with the new UN Peacebuilding Commission to make a genuine difference
to countries emerging from conflict, by drawing together and co-ordinating
the activities of the key peacebuilding actors in Africa, including
the UN and the AU, and by developing a close working relationship
with the International Financial Institutions".
The UK strongly supports the newly established
Peacebuilding Commission, which should play an important role
in sustaining and providing more effective international assistance
to countries emerging from conflict. One of the strengths of this
new institution is that it brings together institutional donors,
including the World Bank and the IMF, and regional organisations
as well as Member States. Its membership can vary depending on
the country under discussion to ensure that all key political,
military and development stakeholders are represented.
The UK supports an effective role for the EU
and AU in all relevant discussions of the Peacebuilding Commission.
We have supported the designation of the European Community as
an "institutional donor" in recognition of its global
role in development assistance, which would entitle it to attend
all meetings of the Peacebuilding Commission. We will also support
representation of the EU by the Presidency in those cases where
it is playing a significant political role alongside the Community's
development assistance. The UK also believes that the central
role of the African Union should be recognised when the Peacebuilding
Commission is discussing African countries, and we will support
its membership in all such cases. The Peacebuilding Commission
has now selected the first two countries for consideration: Sierra
Leone and Burundi. In both cases, the European Commission, European
Union and African Union will all be represented.