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The latest available data can only be used to track three cohorts of qualifiers from 1997 onwards for six years after entering service. Of the 9,300 secondary teachers who qualified in 1997, around 3,000 had left service six years later; in 1998, the corresponding figures were 8,700 and 2,700, respectively; and in 1999, the corresponding figures were 8,800 and 2,700, respectively.

It is not possible to provide a breakdown of subjects taught by those teachers leaving the profession.

It can be seen from the table that wastage rates have remained largely constant over this period with decreases evident in recent years.

Many teachers return to service after a break. In 2005-06, the latest year for which figures are available, around 10,000 qualified teachers returned to service in the maintained sector (all school types) after a break of at least one year.


Lord Laird asked Her Majesty's Government:

The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Home Office (Lord West of Spithead): We consider acts that glorify terrorism and foment the climate around extremists to be unacceptable. We introduced new offences and powers to tackle those who promote terrorism in the Terrorism Act 2006, including the offence of encouragement of terrorism. This legislation specifically aims to make it more difficult for extremists to abuse the freedoms we cherish.

Toxic Chemicals

The Countess of Mar asked Her Majesty's Government:

The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department of Health (Lord Darzi of Denham): The World Health Organisation International Programme on Chemical Safety has recently reviewed the data on the toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls in its Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents series. This is available at

Human studies have identified associations between exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures and adverse reproductive effects, effects on sperm motility, foetal growth rate and development and neurological function in the offspring, and cancer. However, the human studies are restricted by limited exposure data, inconsistency among some results, and the presence of confounding factors; these make it impossible to use them as a basis for risk estimations and thus cannot be assessed.

Data from animal and related experiments indicate that polychlorinated biphenyls do not have any significant mutagenic or genotoxic properties but they are carcinogenic. Neurodevelopmental effects have been observed in several animal species after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

Transport: Road Vehicle Lights

Lord Stoddart of Swindon asked Her Majesty's Government:

Lord Bassam of Brighton: The new requirement relates to an agreed UN-ECE regulation (not a

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European directive). The UK is already a signatory and no further processes are required.

From 2011-12 new types of vehicle will have to be fitted with dedicated low-wattage daylight running lights (DRLs) which automatically activate when the engine is started. This applies only to new types of vehicle, not to new vehicles built under existing type approvals. There is no requirement for existing vehicles to use dipped-beam headlamps during the day.

Research has estimated that, while mandatory dedicated DRLs may provide a net accident reduction of between 3.9 to 5.9 per cent, they may also increase fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions by

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about 0.5 per cent. Fuel prices vary and we do not have calculations of the costs requested, but for an average petrol-engine car we estimate that this will result in a decrease from 32 miles per gallon (mpg) to 31.94 mpg and for an average diesel heavy goods vehicle from 7.8 mpg to 7.76 mpg.

Although dedicated DRLs are low-wattage it is possible that they might in some circumstances mask motorcyclists, but there is no definitive evidence of this. However, motorcycles have been omitted from the DRL requirements so that riders will, as now, remain free to use dipped headlamps during the daytime on a voluntary basis. This has been welcomed by motorcycle user groups.

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