CHAPTER 5: Skills and training|
281. Throughout this inquiry, we were told that
one of the strengths of the UK film and television industries
is the highly skilled workforce. The quality of British actors
is immediately apparent in the succession of Oscars and other
awards won, and in the regular demand for British performers in
leading roles in Hollywood. This high quality is also to be found
in behind-the-camera roles of writing, directing and the range
of craft and technical skills required for production and post-production.
But we were struck by the views of some of our witnesses that
there were skill shortages in some areas and that training was
not as well linked to the needs of the industries as it might
be. We also heard that the changing structure of the industry
and the current economic climate were limiting the availability
of funding for training.
282. We heard that training across the film and
television industries is patchy, with considerable variation in
the extent to which organisations contribute towards both funding
and provision of training. The BBC is heavily involved in training,
spending £43m on training in 2007/08. On the other hand,
small companies are more limited by resources, and so can only
provide limited training opportunities (Q 1393). Dinah Caine,
Chief Executive, Skillset, told us that, in 2008, 78 per cent
of broadcast television employees have received some formal training,
whereas only 36 per cent had in the independent production sector
283. There are a variety of funding and training
organisations within the film and television industries, but Skillset
is the main organisation through which funding is channelled.
Skillset is the Sector Skills Council for Creative Media,
which covers training in both the film and television industries,
and describes itself as "an independent, industry-led organisation;
jointly funded by industry and government, our job is to make
sure that the UK creative media industries have the right people,
with the right skills, in the right place, at the right time,
so that our industries remain competitive" (p 262).
284. This chapter outlines what the training
landscape looks like and ways in which links can be forged between
education and industry to help plug the skills gaps. We also consider
the role and funding of Skillset. In this discussion, we go beyond
the question of skills and training as they affect the production
of UK content, and comment on how training could be developed
to improve the general health of the film and television industries.
Education and industry
285. High proportions of the workforce in both
the television and film industries are graduates. According to
Skillset (p 266), around two-thirds of the workforce in the
television industry is made up of graduates, which is a higher
proportion than the creative media sector overall. Nearly half
of those hold a media-related degree, and the percentage of entrants
choosing media-related degrees is growing. In the film industry,
there is also a high percentage of graduates58 per cent
in film production out of which 21 per cent hold postgraduate
degrees and 38 per cent are media related (p 266). Universities
therefore play an important role in training provision. However,
many of our witnesses from the industries were concerned that
universities do not offer the specialist training needed by students
who want to go on to work in the film and television industries.
286. We heard from a number of witnesses including
those from the animation industry, visual effects sector, and
cable and satellite companies that even graduates with a vocational
element in their media studies degree, still require another one
or two years of training once they enter the industry. Sophie
Turner Laing, BSkyB, criticised the quality of media studies courses,
saying students "are not particularly brilliantly taught
and then we have to retrain them as soon as they come out"
(Q 2019). On the other hand, Kate O'Connor, Executive
Director, Policy and Development, Skillset, argued that media
courses are not aimed at developing technical skills. She explained
"some of those courses at degree level are not intended to
be about training for work in the media industry; they are disciplines,
like any other arts discipline, that students study for the love
of the subject" (Q 2094).
287. Whatever point of view you take on university
courses, it remains the case that there are several specific skills
gaps or shortages at the higher or postgraduate level that are
not being addressed. These are predominantly in visual effects
(anything that you see in a film that you cannot shoot with a
film camera and is then created in post-production); animation
skills and multimedia skills. Also, at the secondary school level,
Skillset agreed (Q 1222) that it needs to be made clearer
to pupils that studying science subjects like mathematics and
physics, can lead to a career in the animation, computer games
and post-production sectors.
288. On visual effects, Roy Button, Warner Bros,
told us that UK universities are not offering the necessary grounding
in digital skills, compared with France and Germany; hence the
Computer-Generated Imagery (CGI) sector had to bring in foreign
trained students. This view was supported by Colin Brown, UK Film
Commissioner, who said that the UK visual effects specialist companies
(which are largely based in London's Soho), work extremely well
together and produce very high quality output. But he added that
the UK was not training enough visual effects artists. Many more
people with mathematics and computer science skills need to be
trained, and there were gaps in the provision of training for
these skills (Appendix 5).
289. Alex Hope, Managing Director, Double Negative,
emphasised the importance to the UK economy, of pursuing the development
of higher-level skills in visual effects, in order to bring about
a global competitive advantage. He said "currently the significant
challenges come from the States and from Australia and New Zealandthere
are some companies in Canada as well
increasingly we will
see competition from Southeast Asia, India and China" (Q 942).
290. Mr Hope identified "two kinds
of visual effects workwhat might be referred to as commodity
work, which might be painting out the wires on a stunt man
[and] the higher end work of creating a digital character. I would
suggest that that lower end work will be very price sensitive
and that for the higher end work, which is the more skilled work,
there are significant barriers to entry. So a policy that focuses
skills at that very top end is policy that is going to see a sustainable
British visual effects industry". He thought that this required
that "companies, both small and large, understand where there
are R & D grants and things like that available to them, of
which a lot of smaller companies in my sector are not necessarily
aware. And seeing policy that is joined up between universities,
the film visual effects industry and the games industry is what
I would strongly recommend" (Q 942).
291. Other representatives from the visual effects
and videogames industry advocated closer links between higher
education institutions and industry. Alex Hope said, "I would
favour a move to bringing industry and higher education closer
together, incentivising in-house training at larger companies;
incentivise the training of those people giving training in higher
education, so that people who are teaching a course in computer
graphics have the opportunity to spend some time in a company
like ours to learn what current best practice is" (Q 956).
292. Skillset report that a quarter of animation
companies report a skills gap. Miles Bullough, Head of Broadcast,
said, "In our sector we feel that the education system is
not delivering to us the graduates that we need for our business"
(Q 1458). According to Aardman, there are around 250 media
courses containing an animation module in the UK, but UK employers
still have to recruit graduates from France and Germany. Aardman
tried to set up an academy themselves, in partnership with local
universities, to try and plug the skills gap but said that, because
of the structure of higher education funding in the UK, they were
unable to develop it. Skillset told us that the Government skills
agenda and budget focuses on lower-level skills, and that the
budget for specialist skills is channelled through higher education
293. We were told that lack of flexibility within
universities made it more difficult to train in multimedia skills,
such as computer studies/graphic design. Peter Dale, Chair,
Television Skills Council, Skillset, said that a problem with
the structure of higher education was that "very good organisations
and universities still operate in silos of creative work. So,
for example, in games, in a university the computer science department
will have nothing whatsoever to do with the graphic design department,
and there will be competition between them" (Q 2100).
294. Skillset told us that targeted funding would
be required in order to tackle the skills gaps in the areas of
visual effects/post-production/animation, but that this would
only involve training about 300 individuals a year. They suggested
that, the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS)
might hold some of the Higher Education Funding Council money
in a specific fund for high-level training, which could be accessed
by Skillset (Q 2122).
295. We recommend that the Department for
Business, Innovation and Skills should encourage the Higher Education
Funding Council to deploy some of its funding to support high-level,
post-graduate training in the post-production and animation sectors.
296. As with other industries, reducing skills
shortages in the creative sector would be helped by closer links
between education and industry. Skillset has attempted to do this
by setting up a network of "academies, media academies and
screen academies, and it is those particular higher education
institutions and FE colleges who are now working with the industry"
(Q 2094). These academies run courses with a significant
vocational element which meet standards laid down by Skillset,
and which "can start to build the kind of curriculum and
the kind of programmes that are needed by the industry" (Q 2103).
Skillset told us that examples of highly successful academies
include the NFTS; Teesside University; and Bournemouth University
297. Lord Carter of Barnes, then Minister for
Communications, Technology & Broadcasting, told us that in
his view the links between the creative industries and universities
were growing. He said there was "increasing and in-depth
engagement between industry, commerce and the major educational
institutions" (Q 1786). We would like to see these links
developed further, to enable students in the creative industries
to spend a significant part of their courses with a company.
298. Skillset emphasised that industry dialogue
with the higher education sector is a two-way process and that
industry needs to be clearer about its needs. Peter Dale, Skillset,
said, "Certainly one of the structural problems we have been
having with the media academies is getting the industry to make
recognition of what they might contribute. They tend to take the
old view, which is that: "The academies or colleges will
turn out people with some ability and we will pick ones we like
the look of", rather than saying, actually: "This is
a process of dialogue we ought to be having where we are identifying
the skills that we anticipate needing and match that with the
curriculum that these places are offering". That dialogue
is not happening, at the moment. We are making a great effort
to make sure that happens, but it has to be a two-way thing"
299. It is apparent that, in order to realise
the full benefits of, for example, academies, in enabling greater
connections between education and industry, that the industries
must be willing to engage in greater dialogue with the education/training
300. We support Skillset's efforts to promote
dialogue between the education and training providers and the
film, television and videogames industries. We recommend that
the Higher Education and Funding Council should encourage closer
relationships between universities and the creative industries,
including the introduction of sandwich courses for media studies
degrees enabling students to spend part or all of the penultimate
year of their degree working in the industry.
Apprenticeships and internships
301. Historically, apprenticeships have been
used in industries of all kinds to address skill gaps. But partly
because of the unusually high proportion of graduates and postgraduates
coming into the creative sector, there is limited use of apprenticeships
in the film and television industries. As Dinah Caine, Skillset,
there is a tendency to recruit people with
higher education qualifications, which immediately rules out the
normal old-style apprenticeship recruits" (Q 1233).
She considered this to be largely due to the culture of the industry,
"because a lot of roles in the industry could be open to
apprenticeships" (Q 1233). She said that Skillset is
trying to address this problem. For example, it is considering
the development of a digital media apprenticeship which might
"get the industry to see that they do not always have to
recruit at HE level" (Q 1233).
302. Additionally, the prevalence of freelance
employment, in both film and television, makes apprenticeship
schemes difficult to operate. Kate O'Connor, Skillset, said
that "there is huge scope for apprenticeships in the film
industry, but because of the nature of employment in the film
industry people are not employed, apart from on the films and
projects. There does need to be this brokerage system, so that
we can sort out training providers
to help organise those
apprentices" (Q 1231).
303. While they are not widespread, apprenticeships
are provided by some companies. Eric Fellner, Deputy Chairman,
British Film Institute, and Co-Chairman of Working Title productions,
told us that Working Title had decided to set up their own scheme.
"We finance it fully ourselves, it costs us a couple of hundred
grand a year and we just think it is worth putting that kind of
money in. We can give three places and we train people right across
the board. All of the people that we have trained have since gone
on to work in the industry and are starting to develop business
skills and creative skills to take them into, hopefully, being
the leaders of the future" (Q 1157).
304. Other companies have used work placements
as well as full apprenticeships. Roy Button, Warner Bros, thought
that it was essential to bring students into the studios on work
placements. He said that "we always avail ourselves of any
trainees or training opportunities or apprenticeships for as long
as we can on a film. Certainly in some of the craft grades that
I am interested in, scenic artists, painters, plasterers, all
that sort of thing, less so for the more mechanical stuff like
electricians and props because that is somewhat simpler because
it is less talent driven" (Q 1391).
305. In our view, apprenticeships and internships
in the film and television industries are under-used and uncoordinated.
We believe there is scope for increasing their use, to the benefit
of the industries but also as a step to providing more structured
careers for film and television industry staff.
306. In addition to the issues already discussed,
there seem to us to be three further training issues to be addressed
in these industries. First, the entry routes into the industries
are still fairly informal, which perpetuates the "who you
know" culture in some pockets of the industries. Second,
the industries are characterised by widespread use of unpaid work
experience, which while developing skills, discriminates against
those who cannot afford to work unpaid. Third, unequal attention
is paid to training by different organisations within the industries.
307. According to Skillset, 47 per cent of the
television workforce has undertaken unpaid working at some point
in their careers (p 12). In a 2008 survey, nearly 40 per
cent of the film production workforce had done some unpaid work
experience in the film industry before getting a paid job.
Skillset emphasised the absence of clear entry routes into the
industry and that progression routes are not supported by proper
organisational structures (p 7).
308. The use of foot-in-the-door work experience
would probably be reduced if our recommendations on apprenticeships,
internships and sandwich courses are adopted. This was a point
made by Peter Dale, Chair, Television Skills Council, Skillset,
who said, "I think this goes back [to]
access to courses, because, clearly, if you turn out with the
right skills, that is more qualifiable than having your father
know someone who runs a television company. I think unpaid work
is endemic; it is undesirable, but I think the figures speak for
themselves. A very, very large proportion of freelancers will
have undertaken unpaid work at some point, and companies with
their backs against the wall trying to make a programme on a reduced
budget will be even more tempted to take those people on"
309. Skillset along with the industry is trying
to address the issue of informal work experience. Kate O'Connor,
Skillset, said, "We have just recently finalised a code of
conduct for what are called graduate internships, because this
is the area that seems to be most confusingwhat constitutes
work experience, legitimately unpaid, and what constitutes working
for nothing to get a foot in the door to get that first range
of contacts" (Q 2132).
310. Within the television industry, there are
initiatives such as in-house training, and work experience. In
addition to or in lieu of Skillset's funded schemes, these are
run and, where applicable, funded by organisations including the
BBC, and major independent production companies.
311. Looking across the television industry,
and the variation in provision of training between cable and satellite
providers, the PSBs and the independent production sector, it
is clear that there is unequal access to the industry as a whole,
with the risk of exploitation of staff through unpaid work, as
well as unequal access to training.
312. We welcome the work that Skillset is
doing on codes of conduct for internships, and encourage them
to play a greater role in the coordination of apprenticeships
and other on-the-job training.
313. We urge the film and television industries
to provide more equal access to training and skills-based career
development through greater use of apprenticeships and graduate
314. As we have mentioned, the BBC is a key provider
of training within the creative industries. Its training budget
was £43m in 2007/08although, in the run up to the
2005 Charter Review, it was around £57m a year (Q 1250).
The budget cuts have led to a reduction in, for example, general
traineeships, which were only reintroduced in 2009 (Q 568).
Despite the reduction in the training budget, the BBC does still
play a significant role in training both for its own staff and
more widely. Tim Bevan, Working Title Productions, said, "a
lot of our crews who would be working on Harry Potter
movies have probably been trained at the BBC" (Q 1386).
315. The BBC outlined to us its role in both
training its own staff and the wider industry. Jana Bennett, Director
BBC Vision said, "Overall, last year we had 57,000 days'
worth of face to face training of staff, so there are very many
other different types of training we do as well. 5,000 days of
training were also delivered to individuals and organisations
in the wider industry" (Q 568).
316. Given the pressure on training budgets in
the television industry, the BBC could make its training provisions
more widely available. Peter Dale, Chair, Television Skills Council,
Skillset, said, "One of the things we are really trying to
do is to ensure that organisations that have substantial training
capacity, like the BBC, can make that more available. Of course,
it is in the BBC's interests to spread its public service contribution
as widely as it can. So we are in very good dialogue with the
BBC about using its training for freelancers and repurposing it
for people who do not belong to the BBC" (Q 2138). In
response to this suggestion, Jana Bennett, Director of BBC Vision
said, "We understand that our role in training becomes more
important with the structural pressures that the industry is under.
I do not think we can be the sole provider of everything but we
want to be more porous and open" (Q 569). In December
2009, the BBC launched the BBC Academya dedicated centre
of excellence for training in journalism, production, leadership
and technology, giving wider access to the BBC's training
resources and skills to support the wider UK media industry.
317. In the light of the variability of training
across the sector, we welcome the continuing role played by the
BBC and the BBC's willingness to make its training more widely
available through the launch of the BBC Academy.
FUNDING OF SKILLSET
318. Contributors to Skillset's training have
included BBC, ITV, Channel 4, five, the Indie Training Fund
and S4C (Channel 4 Wales). The BBC is the largest contributor.
Two of the funds Skillset uses to support the film and television
industries are the Film Skills Fund, and the TV Freelance Fund.
The Film Skills Fund is the largest fund in the UK dedicated to
training in the film industry with funds provided by the UK Film
Council, of £6.5m per annum over the last five years. The
TV Freelance Fund invests in training for the freelance television
workforce, and invested £1.5m in 2007-08. It was introduced
because the television industry is characterised by high levels
of freelancing, a mobile workforce, and the high cost of training.
319. Other organisations providing formal training
include the National Film and Television School (NFTS) and the
Film Business Academy. The NFTS has 13 core funders and receives
just over 50 per cent of its funding via the Department for Culture,
Media and Sport and Skillset. A further 20 per cent is received
from broadcasters, and the remaining 30 per cent through fees
and fundraising. Funding provision to Skillset and the NFTS has
fallen within the last few years. The implications of this are
considered in paragraphs 324 to 331.
320. The Film Business Academy, which is supported
by Skillset and the UK Film Council, was launched in 2005, in
order to provide courses in business skills for the film industry.
According to Terry Ilott, Director, Film Business Academy, there
was the perception that there was a "huge dearth of business
skills in the industry" (Q 1276). This was a view supported
by Martin Smith, Special Adviser, Ingenious Media, who said,
"We have the best technical skills and we have the greatest
talent, but we do not capture the commercial upside in this country.
We must raise our sights higher" (Q 852). According
to Mr Ilott, 80 per cent of what is taught is generic to
business (Q 1314), but the Film and Business Academy has
film-specific modules within their MBA and MSc business and management
321. In emphasising the importance of training
within the film and television industries and how delivery might
be improved, we recognise that there has been a large reduction
in the funding available to Skillset, through which public funding
for training is channelled, and a significant reduction of funding
to the NFTS, one of the key deliverers of training. During 2009,
NFTS has lost its funding from ITV, Channel 5 and Discovery. Sky
and Channel 4 have also had reduced their funding. In total cuts
have amounted to over £500,000 (p 285), around 6.5 per
cent of the NFTS total budget of £7.7m.
322. As Skillset is the main organisation through
which funding is distributed, reductions in funding to Skillset
effectively mean reductions in funding available to the film and
television industries overall. We recognise that there are excellent
private providers of training to the industries, but the sector
as a whole relies heavily on the contribution of Skillset.
REDUCTIONS IN TELEVISION INDUSTRY
FINANCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO SKILLSET
323. Skillset told us that, over the past two
years, broadcasters have reduced their investment in training
and skills. Kate O'Connor told us that as of 2009, out of all
the PSBs, ITV reduced its funding to Skillset the most, withdrawing
funding totally from the freelance training fund, and "substantially"
from the core fund (Q 2144). She went on to say, "It
does concern us that, overall
we have now 50 per cent of
the fund that we had last year, with a growing list of skill requirements
and a real need to prepare for the future upturn, hopefully, of
content development and the skills associated with that"
(Q 2147). Furthermore according to Skillset, in 2009, the
independent production sector has only contributed 20 per cent
of what they normally provide (Q 1216).
324. Asked about ITV's reduction of funding to
Skillset, Michael Grade said, "We have made the decision
that whatever resources we have we need to spend on internal training
and development of our own people first
We have had to
cut the investment. It is not in our long-term interests for there
to be an even greater skill shortage in the sector, not in our
interests at all, and we have to get back to our previous levels
of investment as fast as we canas fast as the economy will
allow (Q 1879). He went on to say, "Sadly, when you
lose 15 per cent of your revenue overnight, you have to make some
very fast, short-term decisions. You do not want to make them
but you have to; you have no choice" (Q 1880).
325. John McVay, PACT, felt that ITV's decision
was short-sighted, and that an obligation should be placed on
PSBs to contribute to organisations such as Skillset, as they
are subsidised by public money (Q 361). Michael Kuhn in his
capacity as Chairman of the National Film and Television School,
agreed with PACT's view (Q 1296 and 1324).
326. The Communications Act 2003, does not oblige
PSBs to contribute to organisations such as Skillset or the NFTS.
Asked if such obligations should be placed on PSBs, Stewart Purvis,
Partner for Content and Standards, Ofcom said that there had been
discussion about a more interventionist approach, "about
requiring specific funding from specific broadcasters for the
training, for instance, of freelancers" but added that there
has not always been agreement on that and Ofcom has not necessarily
always agreed with Skillset's interpretation of our options".
He went on to say, "as yet we have not thought it one of
our regulatory duties to insist that broadcasters contribute to,
for instance, freelance training" (Q 2281).
327. We regret that funding contributions from
the television industry (including the PSBs, satellite and cable
sector, and independent production sector) to the key training
providers, have been reduced or withdrawn. Training is critical
to the long term health of the television industry. We are particularly
concerned that the PSBs, which continue to receive some privileges
from their status as PSBs, are withdrawing from the funding of
training. Lord Puttnam told us that to allow a situation
to occur "whereby ITV, on the same day that it is released
from £20 million worth of PSB obligations, cuts its external
training budget completely is lunacy" (Q 779). We believe
that training should be a priority obligation of PSBs and that,
if necessary, the regulatory framework might be reviewed to ensure
that the PSBs continue to fund training.
328. We understand the current pressures on
the budgets of UK commercial public service broadcasters but believe
that the reduction in training budgets threatens the future competitiveness
of the UK television industry. We urge the Government to encourage
PSBs to revive their investment in training.
REDUCTIONS IN THE UK FILM COUNCIL'S
FINANCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO SKILLSET
329. The UK Film Council has been a major contributor
to Skillset, but its contributions are likely to be lower over
the next few years. Stewart Till, then Chairman of the UK Film
Council, told us in March 2009, "I think it is vital that
the Film Council continues to invest in the training and education
of that workforce. We have spent £6.5 million a year over
the last five years; so a very large slice of our budget. What
I often think the Film Council does best is to do what the industry,
because it is a very fragmented industry, does not do. The industry
historically has not been good on training and education because
it is so fragmented. These very small companies or freelance workers
do not invest in it" (Q 151). Despite the importance
placed on the UK Film Council's contribution to training, the
allocation to Skillset's Film Skills Fund has fallen to £5.4m
in the current financial year and, under the Council's plans
will fall to £3.25m for the three years to March 2013. While
we understand the pressure on the Council's budget, which has
come about through a reduction in lottery funding as we outlined
in Chapter 2, we regret that, despite the importance given in
the UK Film Council's plans to nurturing skills and creative talent
as a core task, it is prepared to see a 50 per cent fall in its
funding of training, compared to the allocation for the past five
330. We regret that, because of budgetary
constraints, the UK Film Council should be forced to reduce significantly
its funding for training for the next three years, at a time when
training should be a priority. We urge the Government to ensure
that the UK Film Council is adequately funded to allow it at least
to restore its former level of support for training.
The current regulatory framework
for training in the television industry
331. The current regulatory framework for training
in the television industry is set out in the Communications Act
2003. In accordance with section 6 of the Act, Ofcom set up a
system of co-regulation for training, and established, in 2005,
The Broadcast Training and Skills Regulator (BTSR), as a co-regulatory
body between Ofcom, Skillset and the industry.
The purpose of such a system is to ensure an industry-led method
of planning, organising and measuring the delivery of training
in the sector; and gives responsibility to broadcasters for setting
objectives and standards for training both individually and collectively
332. There is, however, some confusion, between
Ofcom and Skillset, about the co-regulatory arrangements. Skillset
said in its written evidence (p 21) that "current powers
have not been sufficient to allow for meaningful dialogue".
When pressed on this, neither Skillset nor Ofcom were able to
clarify the issue for us, and suggested that we talk to the other
bodies in the co-regulatory relationship. There appears to be
a disagreement between Ofcom and Skillset around Ofcom's obligations
regarding freelance training. In an industry which is so dependent
on freelance working and informal training, this uncertainty around
statutory definitions of training is unhelpful and needs to be
clarified as a matter of urgency. Given the inevitable temptation
within the private sector to take short-term cost-cutting decisions,
the industry is reliant on the industry regulator to take a longer
view and safeguard the nation's long-term talent and skills base.
333. Ofcom told us (p 508) that it has "put
proposals to both BTSR and Skillset for rationalising the current
framework and developing co-operation in information collection
and will be working with both organisations on the way forward".
334. We welcome Ofcom's proposals to develop
co-operation within the regulatory framework for training in the
television industry and recommend that Ofcom should publish guidance
to clarify the roles of the organisations involved.
102 Skillset subdivides the Creative industries into
10 sectors: animation, computer games, facilities, film, interactive
media, other content creation, photo imaging, publishing, radio
and television Back
Aardman Animations, Ltd., also known as Aardman Studios, is a
privately owned British animation studio based in Bristol, United
Kingdom. The studio is famous for its stop-frame, clay animation
productions.The same technology is used for all productions. Aardman
is well known for its plasticine duo, Wallace and Gromit. Back
The Skillset Media Academies form a network of colleges
and universities across the UK which are centres of excellence
in television and interactive media. Back
Skillset/UK Film Council Film Production Workforce Survey (2008) Back
ITF is a registered charity that aims to improve the competitiveness
of UK independent television and digital media production companies,
by collecting funds from their productions to invest strategically
in appropriate training and development initiatives Back
NFTS Management accounts for year ending 31 December 2009, to
be published in May 2010 Back
UK Film Council Plan.UK Film: Digital innovation and creative
excellence-Policy and funding priorities April 2010 to March 2013 Back
BTSR's prime purpose is to work with its co-regulatory partners
to ensure that the relevant broadcasters comply with Sections
27 & 337 of the Communications Act 2003.(BTSR annual report