CHAPTER 2: The EsF in practice|
Experience with the ESF
29. Participants of the projects visited by Sub-Committee
G in London were overwhelmingly positive about their experience
(see Box 3). Those at the Tomorrow's People Trust project mentioned
that they received more time and attention from the project than
they would get at a Jobcentre Plus. One participant felt that
the programme had built their confidence and particularly appreciated
the professional advice they had received. Similarly, a participant
at the Step Up project who had learned to touch-type indicated
that she too had benefited from the advice available from her
mentor, which had allowed her to identify a course that she might
then pursue at college. All of the participants at the Step Up
project whom the Sub-Committee met favourably compared the project
to their experiences in mainstream education (Appendix 3).
ESF projects in London visited by Sub-Committee
Tomorrow's People Trust
This project is located in the East of London and
is targeted at the hardest to reach, such as lone parents, the
over-50s, participants with disability or health problems, ex-offenders
and the long-term unemployed. It has been in operation for 18
months, and is part of the London Job Centre Plus (DWP) co-financed
ESF programme. The project started in July 2008 and will run until
July 2011, with ESF funding of £1,550,000.
The project, based in Elephant and Castle in London,
aims to help 14-18 year olds gain new skills, such as computing,
and prepare for employment. It is targeted at those that have
been excluded from school, have excluded themselves prematurely
from school or have been referred by a school. The project started
in September 2008 and is due to finish on 31 July 2010. It will
receive £1,012,100 of ESF funding and is co-financed by the
Learning and Skills Council (LSC).
30. More generally, most of our witnesses recognised
the value of the ESF. The Commission concluded that the history
of the ESF "is one of success and we see that it has a great
future as well" (Q 198). It pointed in particular to
the ways in which the ESF had induced policy change at the national
level by introducing new perspectives, observing that Germany
had changed its emphasis from a main focus on the already long-term
unemployed to preventing the shorter-term unemployed from slipping
into this category (Q 199). In Ireland, the ESF had helped
to raise awareness about inequalities in the Irish economy and
society by helping with the expansion of childcare and funding
the Equality Authority (QQ 219, 228). Various witnesses emphasised
the contribution that the ESF had played previously in supporting
social inclusion (QQ 48, 90, 102). The Government Office
for Yorkshire and Humber pointed to its Progress Together model
as an example of supporting social inclusion under the current
programme. This was described as "a much more holistic approach
to supporting the most disadvantaged" including outreach
work, training, advice, guidance and support (QQ 151-2).
31. The Scottish Government had also found the
ESF extremely valuable in encouraging equality and social inclusion
criteria to be built into projects; gender balance was one important
consideration (Q 312). Similarly, tackling gender imbalance
had been a priority of the Welsh Assembly Government. It was looking
particularly at addressing career development and at gender stereotyping
in career choices (Q 313).
32. Others emphasised the economic benefits of
ESF intervention. The Department for Employment and Learning,
Northern Ireland concluded that "the ESF continues to make
a significant contribution to supporting economic growth in Northern
Ireland aimed at creating a knowledge-based economy, with a highly
skilled, and flexible workforce" (p 247). The Convergence
Partnership Office for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly noted
that the ESF was helping to address "the increasingly acute
skills and employment needs of individuals in these testing economic
conditions", with the South West Regional Development Agency
highlighting that three people a day were being helped back into
work in Cornwall by the ESF (Q 132, p 86).
Targeting the "hardest to
reach in the labour market"
The hardest to reach in the labour market
The "hardest to reach in the labour market"
are those who possess the fewest characteristics needed for participation
in the labour market as it currently exists and who are likely
to be the most difficult to engage in ESF activity as a result
of personal or contextual factors, such as:
· multiple or complex problems;
· unstable or transient residence;
· absence of the most basic of skills or
· significant disability;
· absence of English language ability.
33. There was broad agreement among our witnesses
that the "hardest to reach" (see Box 4) were an important
sector of society with which the ESF was well placed to engage.
The Mayor of London and London Councils explained that the key
aim of the ESF in London was "to provide targeted support
to the hardest groups to engage in employment and training and
provide training opportunities to those in the workforce that
want to upgrade their qualifications and skills" (p 194).
The South West Regional Development Agency took a similar view,
adding that, in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly, there were 900
young people not engaged in employment or training (NEETs) and
they were "really difficult young people to reach",
often living in rural areas, without their own transport. It concluded
that the major focus of the Fund should be the hardest to reach
in the labour market (Q 110). The LSC confirmed that, at
the beginning of the 2007-13 programme, ESF resources were used
to target the 16-18 NEET group and those adults who had been disengaged
from the labour market for over 12 months (Q 18).
34. Similarly, the Scottish Government concentrated
on moving the hardest to reach back towards work, such as those
who were inactive for reasons of discrimination, disability, poor
education and social circumstances (Q 276). By way of example,
the Scottish Government asked the Skills Development Scotland
organisation to work with those who did not usually participate
in modern apprenticeships, such as ethnic minorities, in order
to ensure that the ScotAction packages engaged with a balance
of people across Scotland from disadvantaged communities (see
also paragraph 124). ScotAction had been "an extremely useful
tool" (Q 312).
35. The LSC emphasised, however, that there was
a balance to strike between deploying resource to help those who
had suffered disadvantage more recently (such as the Rover workforce
made redundant in 2005 and subsequently assisted back into work
by the ESF and other means) and those who had suffered disadvantage
over a longer period of time. It recognised that the economic
downturn had changed the balance slightly given the larger proportion
of individuals in the short term unemployed category (QQ 16,
18). (See Chapter 4 for further consideration of the effect of
the downturn on ESF provision.)
36. Representatives of the Third Sector (the
voluntary sector), which has an important role in delivering the
Fund, expressed considerable doubts as to whether the Fund had
been reaching those with multiple disadvantages (Q 73, pp
50, 245-6). They observed that there had been a specific priority
in the 2000-6 period of combating social exclusion, with 25% of
funds targeted at the hardest to reach. This was not replicated
under the current programme, and it was estimated that the proportion
going to the hardest to reach was probably more in the region
of 5% (QQ 76, 90, p 40).
Challenges faced by the Third
37. There was some concern from representatives
of the Third Sector that the Sector had been hampered in its involvement
in the current programme by the system of co-financing in England
(see paragraph 14) and that this was at least part of the reason
for the apparent reduction in the proportion of ESF directed at
the hardest to reach (pp 91, 246-7). Community Service Volunteers
asserted that "our ability to push the boundaries and work
with excluded groups has been curtailed" (p 47). It
was suggested that the move towards public procurement of large-scale
contracts had made it difficult for smaller providers to be involved
38. In order to substantiate their arguments,
the Third Sector European Network (TSEN) provided some evidence
of those projects that were no longer supported by the ESF. Among
17 organisations sampled in the north east of England which had
accessed ESF in the previous round, none had done so in the 2007-13
programme (p 63). A specific example was a project called
"Move On", which worked with some 1,300 mental health
services users, refugees, asylum seekers, people with disabilities,
people with learning difficulties and single parents (Q 78).
39. Other witnesses rejected the suggestion that
the Third Sector was under-represented in ESF delivery. The South
West Regional Development Agency and the Government Office For
Yorkshire And The Humber noted that there was a specific allocation
of ESF funding to ensure that the Third Sector was able to respond
to the tendering rounds that the Co-Financing Organisations (CFOs)
carried out and thus continued to make a strong contribution (QQ 121, 153).
As specific evidence of Third Sector involvement in South Yorkshire,
the Government Office for Yorkshire and the Humber pointed to
the organisation "VC Train", a consortium for Third
Sector skills delivery, which was awarded £4 million of ESF
funding in July 2008 for a period of two years (p 107). Others
drew our attention to Cornish projects and we also visited voluntary
sector run projects in London (pp 82-5, 104-6).
40. In response to the Third Sector concerns,
the Government told us that 60% of the sub-contractors in co-financed
programmes in England were Third Sector organisations (p 245).
The Government had been keen to use the ESF during the recession
to ensure that those furthest from the labour market were not
pushed further away due to the higher number of people out of
employment, work for which the Third Sector was particularly suited
(QQ 380-1). The Government also noted that, whereas under
the previous system small providers had been required to identify
their own match funding, this was no longer necessary with co-financing.
It emphasised that the focus should be on an organisation's "ability
to help people" rather than its origin (Q 388).
41. Responding to the view that smaller Third
Sector organisations were encountering difficulties in accessing
funds, the Commission noted that there was no evidence to suggest
that their participation was any lower than under the previous
programme, but that it had been agreed to improve the evidence
base (Q 202). Like the Government, the Commission emphasised
that it was interested above all in delivery of the proposed targets
in conformity with the programme (Q 204).
42. An alternative perspective on the effectiveness
of the ESF in supporting innovative, small projects was provided
by our witnesses from the devolved administrations. The Scottish
Government was of the view that its system of partnership bidding
rather than co-financing allowed "unique little projects"
to come forward (Q 291). Similarly, the Welsh Assembly Government
considered that its mixed funding approach would give a range
of organisations the opportunity to stay engaged more directly
with the programmes (Q 293). Nevertheless, both administrations
admitted that working with larger organisations rendered it easier
to meet the audit requirements of the Fund (QQ 296-8, 303).
43. Several witnesses gave practical examples
of how the ESF was already supporting the development of "green
skills". In North West England, the Green Ways to Work project
was being funded by the ESF to develop, test and deliver new skills
to address climate change and sustainable development. A similar
project was being supported in South Yorkshire at Dearne Valley
College (QQ 170-1).
44. The Minister told us that the ESF was already
investing £2.8 million in a Sustainable Construction Skills
Academy in Dartford in order to develop some of the lower level
skills within the green construction industry (Q 393). The
South West Regional Development Agency emphasised the same need
to improve the skills of those already in work by, for example,
training existing plumbers to fit new, greener boilers (QQ 110,
45. Taking a more negative view, the University
of Sunderland noted that the restriction in the current ESF programme
in England on skills provision to those of levels 1 and 2 (see
Box 5) severely limited the possibilities to invest in the higher
level skills training required for the development of low carbon
technologies (Q 45).
Lower and higher level skills
The skills hierarchy
Lower and higher level skills relate to the degree
of sophistication and depth of content tied up in the ability
(skill) to perform a particular role or task. There is an internationally
recognised hierarchy of skills levels (from level 1basic,
level 2GCSE, level 3A level, up to Level 5postgraduate),
against which formalised qualifications or achievement level can
be benchmarked. This is how for example an NVQ level 4 can be
recognised as at the equivalent level of depth and complexity
to a full first degree. In the current ESF programmes in the UK,
there is little scope for supporting work to lead to achievement
beyond level 3, except within the convergence regions.
46. Our witnesses generally accepted that the
focus of the ESF should be on lower level skills. The Government
Office for the North West drew the Committee's attention to the
recommendations of the Leitch Review of Skills,
and concluded that the ESF must have an emphasis on lower level
skills "because this is where there is very strong evidence
that market failure happens"once you are beyond the
basic levels, the market tends to work better (Q 155). The
Minister emphasised that, for those without them, "the basic
skills and foundation skills" must be provided (Q 367).
In Wales, a focus had been placed on lower level skills in the
East Wales Programme (Q 278). Higher Education European Funding
Services Limited recognised that "a good 90-95 per cent"
of the funds should be spent on those needing support at the lower
end of the qualification ladder (Q 41).
47. On the other hand, we heard criticism from
the higher education sector about the balance of funding between
lower and higher level skills. The North West Universities Association
regretted that there was much less of an emphasis on higher level
skills in the current programme given that the North West regional
skills analysis identified higher level skills provision as an
area requiring greater attention (QQ 34, 43). Higher Education
European Funding Services Limited commented that this lesser emphasis
had hampered the ability to provide higher education, such as
mechanical engineering at Huddersfield University, to disadvantaged
people locally. It also observed that higher level skills were
an important complement to resources devoted to lower level skills
48. Other witnesses recognised the need for a
balance between lower and higher level skills. As the Minister
pointed out, the Leitch Review (see paragraph 46) also emphasised
that the number of unskilled jobs was going to diminish and there
would be a need "to be able to compete with our international
competitors on the basis of ever higher levels of skill".
He explained that, in the second half of the current ESF programming
period, the Government would be increasing the amount of level
3 technical skills that could be gained, and asserted that "there
is a skills journey that people need to go on" (Q 367).
The West Midlands Leaders Board welcomed this increased focus
on higher level skills (P 64-Vol I). Such a balance of skills
needs was also recommended by London Councils, which emphasised
that, in the context of the London job market, "it is about
trying to make sure that the skills you are trying to develop
in people match the needs of the employers in the market in which
you are working" (Q 322).
49. The value of devoting ESF funds to higher
level skills was demonstrated by evidence from Cornwall. As convergence
regions, West Wales and the Valleys and Cornwall and the Isles
of Scilly could devote substantial ESF funding to higher level
skills. In the former, about 60% of funding under the convergence
programme went to lower level skills and the remainder to higher
level skills. For Cornwall, the example of "Unlocking Cornish
Potential" (see Box 6) was cited, which was a project enabling
recent graduates to stay with companies that would not otherwise
be able to keep them on (QQ 110, 278, p 104).
"Unlocking Cornish Potential"
In the first five years of the scheme:
234 graduates were placed with 149 Cornish businesses;
59% of the businesses reported an increase in turnover,
with an average of over £128,000 in the first 12 months of
employing the graduate;
70% of the graduates were offered a full-time job
with their host business after completing their projects; and
over 50% of the graduates were originally from Cornwall.
50. The Convergence Partnership Office for Cornwall
and the Isles of Scilly remarked "we feel very strongly that
the ESF agenda should travel across the entire employment and
skills agenda, all the way from those who are hardest to reach
in terms of getting into work through to the higher skills".
This was of particular relevance to Cornwall and the Isles of
Scilly as they lacked any higher education facilities until very
recently (Q 156).
51. The Minister explained that he interpreted
additionality (see paragraph 22) as referring to the addition
of scale or quality by, for example, adding more hours to training
or enhancing the user experience (Q 369). Lincolnshire County
Council defined it as "bigger, better and faster". An
example of "bigger" was a new project creating 37 apprenticeships
for adults who would not otherwise have been eligible because
of their age. "Better" was its Countryside Job Bus which
visited villages to provide training and Jobcentre facilities.
"Faster" included its ability to respond to industrial
change, such as local Siemens redundancies (Q 341).
52. Other witnesses also gave examples of additionality.
The LSC and the Government Office for Yorkshire and the Humber
cited the example of the Government's Train to Gain programme,
which the LSC had been able to supplement by allowing "level
2s" into the programme. In its Response to Redundancy Programme
(see Box 10), the LSC attempted to prevent individuals from reaching
the stages in the unemployment timeline where they would become
eligible for national funding. In all cases, noted the LSC, the
ESF was used to work around the edges of mainstream funding (QQ 20,
173). Other examples provided by the LSC included the provision
of additional mentoring support, additional English language support
and other learning support that people might need for which there
was not sufficient mainstream funding, but would allow them eventually
to participate in schemes funded nationally (Q 21).
53. The Convention of Scottish Local Authorities
(COSLA) pointed to its Community Planning Partnerships (CPPs),
a nationally organised scheme providing funding for innovative
projects at the local council level, as examples of additionality
(Q 262). One example of a recent cash injection from the
scheme was £2.8 million of ESF support for "Glasgow
Works", a project in Glasgow which targeted groups alienated
from the labour market. The Welsh Assembly Government pointed
to the ability of the ESF to broaden the scope of the intervention
brought by a standard employment programme by boosting confidence
and improving motivation. It added that, under the skills priority,
the focus of adding value was on adding numbers, putting more
people through apprenticeship programmes than would otherwise
be the case (Q 287). The South West Regional Development
Agency reported that the ESF allowed preparatory work with individuals
before using mainstream funding (Q 111).
54. In higher education it was noted that funds
available through the ESF in the previous programming period had
allowed institutions to address their local market, whereas funds
from the Higher Education Funding Council were generally aimed
at the national market (QQ 34, 39, 70). The ESF had been
used by the higher education sector to waive fees and offer small
bursaries to those who would normally be least able to afford
the cost of high-level training (Q 62). This amounted to
around 70% of ESF spend on higher education in the north east
How is additionality assured?
55. The Government explained that they challenged
new projects on their additionality as a first stage of assessment,
before the Commission checked compliance. To date, the Government
had not encountered any problems with the Commission over the
additionality of programmes in England (QQ 370-2). The Welsh
Assembly Government confirmed that the Commission checked compliance
with the principle of additionality mid-way through, and at the
end of, the multi-annual programme (p 187).
56. In terms of assessing additionality, the
Scottish Government explained that, when negotiating programmes,
it was necessary to establish "baselines" in terms of
normal business and then demonstrate what additional activity
the ESF could provide (Q 289). The Government Office for
Yorkshire and the Humber and the Government Office for the North
West had found this easier with the co-financing model as compared
to the previous, direct bidding model, under which it was harder
to identify what would be there without the additional ESF funding
57. We heard that establishing additionality
at the local level was important. The South West Regional Development
Agency told us that it sought to ensure additionality through
its local contracting for a particular activity, taking account
of what already existed and what was needed, and COSLA concluded
similarly that "the more localised you do the interventions,
the easier it is to compare and measure" (QQ 129, 262).
58. Witnesses also described the difficulties
encountered in identifying additionality. The Convergence Partnership
Office for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly warned that "the
additionality of ESF needs constant monitoring" (p 86).
For example, a number of initiatives from central Government launched
in response to the economic crisis were already being delivered
through the ESF in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly (QQ 129,
183). The Government Office for Yorkshire and the Humber noted
that additionality was more difficult to identify where ESF funding
was being used to enhance programmes rather than deliver something
new (Q 185).
Publicising the ESF
59. The Commission was of the view that the ESF
was a very visible and tangible benefit of the EU, reaching, as
it does, 10 million people per year, but that participants were
not always aware of the EU's involvement. The Commission was working
with Member States to improve the visibility of the ESF (QQ 223-4).
London Councils agreed with the Commission that the Structural
Funds helped to make "Europe real" (Q 356).
60. On this subject, the Minister noted that
the Government's budget for publicising the ESF over the period
2007-10 was £935,000, of which £374,000 came from the
Technical Assistance strand of ESF funding (see paragraphs 64-66).
Explaining some of the work involved, the Minister referred to:
the fact that participants must be informed that they are in receipt
of ESF money; a national launch event that was held in 2007 with
the Commissioner; various events that are held around the country
to celebrate some of the achievements of the ESF; over 1,000 regional
and local press articles about the ESF; the fact that the Minister
does a series of visits and encourages other Ministers to do likewise
around their regions; and the use of new media such as YouTube
and ESF Works (a website for bringing together best practice).
On the other hand, the Minister suggested that recipients might
be aware that they were being funded by the ESF but might not
understand that this money came from the EU (Q 364).
61. The Scottish Government explained that part
of its Communication Plan for the Structural Fund Operational
Programmes 2007-13 was to publicise good projects with successful
outcomes (p 165). Its methods included: seminars; programme
launches; publicity events; and PR campaigns, using radio and
website coverage in order to raise public awareness of European
Structural Funds across Scotland. Finally, all participants were
informed that they were in receipt of ESF support.
62. From the higher education sector, the University
of Sunderland recognised that one of the Commission's frustrations
had been lack of awareness among recipients, but the University
itself emphasised that those being supported for access to higher
education were aware of the provenance of the funding (Q 62).
63. The West Midlands Leaders Board had developed
a "Joint Regional Strategy for ESF Communication Policy"
along with partners including the LSC, the Government Office for
the West Midlands and Jobcentre Plus. The objective of the strategy
was to ensure the effective exchange of information and to ensure
that coverage was maximised. As part of this, Technical Assistance
(see below) had been used to commission a PR Agency to co-ordinate
and facilitate events and press coverage (p 252).
Technical Assistance (TA)
64. The Government told us that the TA allocation
(see paragraph 6) for the 2007-13 England ESF programme was £98m,
of which £20.5m had been committed so far. As it was unlikely
that the full TA would be committed by the end of the programme,
the Government might make a proposal to re-allocate some of those
funds towards additional employment and training provision (p 221).
65. The West Midlands Leaders Board commented
that TA had proved essential in supporting the delivery of the
co-financing plan, but that providing the necessary matching public
funds to the TA programme was difficult. It therefore recommended
that either TA funds be incorporated as a ring-fenced element
of the main Priorities or that a higher ESF intervention rate
be introduced for TA (p 252).
66. The LSC similarly recognised the difficulty
that regional partners had experienced in finding sufficient match
funding for TA, and also suggested that a higher ESF intervention
rate might be permitted
for TA (p 2).
The future: ESF transitional
arrangements for termination of the Learning and Skills Council
67. One of the main bodies responsible for delivering
the ESF in England, the LSC, is due to be dissolved in April 2010,
with its responsibilities to be split between the Skills Funding
Agency (SFA), the Young People's Learning Agency (YPLA) and local
68. Lincolnshire County Council warned of the
management challenge under the reorganisation to make sure that
the ESF was not lost in "an absolutely massive scale of change"
in both organisational and programme terms, particularly given
that the ESF was a relatively small part of the LSC's portfolio
69. The LSC itself confirmed that it was working
on the development of the operating model for the ESF in the future,
under which the SFA would be operating for adult skills with co-financing,
but also as a shared service on behalf of the YPLA and local authorities
in terms of the 14-19 age group. A service level agreement was
being drawn up between the SFA and YPLA to clarify the activities
for which the SFA would be responsible. The current LSC team working
at the national level on ESF would be transferred intact to the
SFA. While there would be changes at regional levels, the LSC
was putting in place a training plan to ensure that skills, knowledge
and experience were transferred (QQ 2, 4).
70. The Minister was content that adult skills
would migrate easily from the LSC to the SFA, but thought an area
with greater potential for problems was the targeted work with
NEETs on which the DCSF (Department for Children, Schools and
Families) leads. In that area, there would be a complex interaction
between the YPLA and local authorities, seeking to relate the
activities of individual local authorities coherently to the regional
employment and skills strategies (Q 412).
Conclusions and Recommendations
71. Our witnesses have recognised the value of
the European Social Fund, pointing to its particular benefits
in terms of introducing new ideas, social inclusion and economic
development and we conclude that the ESF is an important component
of the EU's broader social and economic cohesion policy.
72. The ESF is funding particularly valuable
work with the hardest to reach and least skilled. While higher
level skills are crucial for the EU's economic development, the
ESF has limited resources and we remain convinced that its added
value lies in its ability to make the hardest to reach and the
least skilled employable. We recommend that priority be given
to safeguarding this aspect of the ESF's role.
73. We are concerned that the system of competitive
tendering under co-financing in England, whilst having many merits,
may have led to providers being incentivised to "cherry pick"
participants who are easiest to place into the labour market,
at the expense of the hardest to reach. We therefore recommend
that this risk be explicitly addressed by, for example, delivery
bodies being contractually required to demonstrate that they are
still delivering to the hardest to reach.
74. It is evident that many of the providers
best able to assist the hardest to reach are in the Third Sector.
We have heard conflicting evidence as to their reduced involvement
in the ESF England programmes in the course of the current programming
period. It is critical that the objectives of the ESF are delivered
and that the appropriate participants are reached. No particular
contractor or sector has a right to funding; any award must be
based on merit. We acknowledge, though, the special value that
the Third Sector can bring to the programme and therefore conclude
that it is important that small operators have a fair opportunity
to innovate and to be involved. We recommend that the Government
and the Commission ensure that this Sector is encouraged to participate
to its best ability in the programme.
75. We welcome the work already being undertaken
through the ESF to support green skills and consider this aspect
of the ESF to be relevant as it moves forward.
76. Additionality is a fundamental principle
underlying the EU's Structural Funds and measuring it can be complex.
We heard particularly that the need to monitor the principle constantly
is challenging. We therefore recommend that Managing Authorities
share this responsibility with those disbursing the Fund.
77. We agree with the Commission that the ESF
is a very visible and tangible benefit of the EU. While we were
impressed by the efforts being made to publicise it, we agree
that its visibility needs to be improved. We recommend that
Member States and the Commission make this a priority. The Commission
should assist with the sharing of best practice between Member
States and regions as appropriate.
78. We heard evidence to support the importance
of Technical Assistance to the effective delivery of the ESF,
and recommend that Managing Authorities both work with organisations
to overcome difficulties encountered in identifying match funding
and explore the possibility of introducing a higher ESF intervention
rate for Technical Assistance.
79. We were pleased to hear the plans being put
in place by the LSC to deal with the transition to new arrangements
for administration of the ESF following the dissolution of the
LSC in England. Nevertheless, such a transition will not be simple.
At such a key time for the ESF in England, we recommend that the
Government monitor arrangements closely to ensure that the requirements
for the delivery of the second phase of funding for the 2007-13
programme this year are handled efficiently and do not lead to
delays in commissioning and delivering new provision.
24 Leitch Review of Skills, "Prosperity for all
in the global economy-world class skills". Final Report,
HM Treasury, December 2006 Back
The intervention rate refers to the proportion of total programme
or project spend made up by ESF funds. For Technical Assistance,
the provider normally receives 50% ESF funds, and must identify
matching funds from other public funds at its disposal. Back