CHAPTER 6: THE EAST LONDON LEGACY |
259. The legacy of regeneration for East London
was firmly emphasised in the 2005 bid to host the games. The bidding
documents highlighted levels of deprivation in and around Stratford,
but also set out the potential effect that significant investment
might have on an area relatively close to the centre of London.
This regeneration, coupled with the sporting inspiration described
in earlier Chapters, formed the core of the legacy promises initially
made in the London 2012 bid.
260. The Government's December 2010 Legacy Action
Plan promised to ensure that "the Olympic Park can be developed
after the Games as one of the principal drivers of regeneration
in east London". Responsibility for taking forward this aim
rested, until March 2012, with the Olympic Park Legacy Company.
In April 2012 a Mayoral Development Corporation was formed, under
the auspices of the Localism Act 2011. This corporationthe
London Legacy Development Corporation (LLDC)is now responsible
for the development of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park for legacy
261. The London boroughs which played host to
the GamesGreenwich, Hackney, Newham, Tower Hamlets and
Waltham Foresthave, since 2005, worked together to seek
to secure positive outcomes for their residents. These five boroughs
were joined, in April 2011, by Barking and Dagenham. Before the
Games, these boroughs were collectively known as the host boroughs;
since the Games, they are typically called growth boroughs. Across
a range of employment, health, income and skills indicators these
boroughs have, historically, scored less than the London average.
The principal aim of the growth boroughs is to see these measures
improve over the course of twenty years, eventually meeting the
London average. This aim, known as convergence, has received commitment
and backing from Government and the Mayor.
262. During the course of our inquiry we were
consistently told that much of the pre-Games infrastructure expenditure
in East London was incurred on projects which would have taken
place even if the Games had not happened, but that these projects
would have been delivered over a much longer time scale. One 2012
legacy was therefore to have accelerated this investment. This
also implies that the total incremental economic benefit of hosting
the Games was considerably lower than the total benefit being
attributed to the project; we received evidence to support this
call on the Government to publish figures setting out the true
net benefit of hosting the Olympic and Paralympic Games. (Recommendation
The need for long-term vision
263. The challenges facing parts of East London
are long-term and the solutions, necessarily, require long-term
commitment and investment. They extend beyond the Park boundary
controlled by LLDC; Ken Livingstone highlighted the "huge
potential" of the land between the Thames and the Olympic
Park. A number
of witnesses told us that the current position was, effectively,
only the mid point in a fifty year programme of intervention and
support. Lord Mawson told us that:
"There was this sense that if this project
happened it would be part of a much bigger regeneration of a piece
of east London, and that if the Olympics came to London, the opportunity
to deliver and speed up that legacy was very great indeed. That
is why we began to talk about 50 years. In a sense, we are at
the point of the next phase, of the next 20-odd years of that
264. The Growth Boroughs stated that partners
who had worked together to make the Olympics a success needed
to continue to work together, with a shared commitment to convergence,
to maximise the legacy of the Games. Without this long-term, shared,
commitment and vision it was possible that "a true and lasting
Olympic legacy will not be fully realised and East and South East
London will continue to be a drain on the country's resources
rather than becoming net contributors to UK GDP".
265. We asked the Mayor of London where the responsibility
should lie for setting out, and leading, the long-term 'vision'
for East London:
"The Chairman: Far be it for me to
feed you further lines of aggrandisement, but does the mayor have
sufficient powers to carry through that vision over the next 10
or 20 years?
Boris Johnson: I believe that the mayoralty
is ideally placed to do that. It is the natural body with the
democratic legitimacy in London to do it. We work very closely
with the growth boroughs, and that is the way forward. This is
something that requires a concerted, strategic effort. It requires
a great deal of oomph. It is something that City Hall is in a
good position to lead on."
266. The hosting of the Games required sustained
commitment from a wide variety of national, regional and local
partners, working towards a shared goal. The delivery of a successful
regeneration legacy in East London will require the same cooperation
and a sustained, consistent vision, but over a longer period of
time. The office of the Mayor is best placed to provide ownership
to this, and should have clear responsibility for setting out
and leading this vision.
267. We urge all partners involved in delivering
the legacy in East London to maintain the long-term commitment
required to deliver positive change. We recommend that the office
of the Mayor should produce an annual report setting out the extent
to which partners are making progress in delivering the legacy
for East London. This should be received and debated by the London
Assembly. (Recommendation 16)
The Housing Legacy
THE EAST VILLAGE
268. During the games, the Olympic Village played
host to over 11,000 athletes. It was always intended that the
village would be converted into residential accommodation post-Games,
with around 50% made available for affordable housing; this formed
a central part of the legacy 'promise' made around the time of
the bid. It was originally intended that the remaining half of
the site would be made available for private sales.
269. The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) had
responsibility for transforming the village, post-Games, into
accommodation suitable for permanent residential use. In total,
2,818 properties will be available in a neighbourhood now known
as the 'East Village'. The ODA agreed, in August 2011, to sell
51% of the site to a partnership of Qatari Diar and Delancey,
with the housing to be marketed as private rental accommodation.
The partnership, now known as Get Living London, is currently
marketing the site. GLL told us that the legal commitment to rent
these properties, rather than to sell them, expires in eight years.
270. Get Living London also told us that they
were not subject to any planning or contractual stipulation that
required them to target local residents, but had always assumed
that they would receive interest from people living locally. Whilst
marketing was being conducted London-wide, around a third of applicants
currently registering an interest in the homes were based in east
271. The remaining 49% of the site will be made
available as affordable housing. This element is being delivered
through Triathlon Homes, a partnership between East Thames Group,
Southern Housing and the urban development company First Base.
Of these 1,379 properties, 675 are social housing, with local
authority nomination rights on the vast majority; around two-thirds
of these houses are now pre-allocated, via the relevant local
remainder of this affordable housing element comprises intermediate
rent and shared ownership homes.
272. Triathlon Homes made clear that the amount
of affordable and social rented housing provided within this development
was relatively high, and that this was in part due to both the
timing, and the unique nature of the development.
Sir Robin Wales expressed high hopes for the village,
outlining steps that were being taken to move working families
into the village in order to seek the right "balance".
273. It should not be assumed that the need for
a 'legacy' requires that elements of the post-Games village be
made available for affordable housing; there was no such provision
in Sydney, and there will be no such provision after Rio 2016,
where a developer will build the village, lease it to the organising
committee and then, in the words of John Coates, "maximise
the profit afterwards".
274. We welcome the provision of a significant
amount of affordable housing within the East Village. The measures
that are being taken to make this housing available to local people
are also welcome.
275. Buildings within the East Village are based
around courtyards in an open square, known as plots. Each of these
plots contains a mixture of private market, intermediate rent,
shared ownership and social rented accommodation. These are typically
separated into blocks, served by different lift shafts and staircases,
but the blocks are intended to be 'tenure-blind' from the outside.
Each courtyard therefore serves a mix of tenures.
276. Triathlon Homes and GLL explained that a
mix of tenures, designed in this way, was not uncommon in other
developments across the UK. To have this mix on such a large scale,
however, is uncommonwe sought out comparable UK examples
but were not provided with any.
The GLL portion of the development is the first UK private sector
residential fund of more than 1,000 houses to be owned and directly
managed as an investment.
277. We recommend that Get Living London continue
to monitor levels of local interest in private housing within
the development, and should be prepared to report how much of
this interest develops into long-term occupation. (Recommendation
278. The village, when fully occupied, will comprise
the first new residential community within the Park. We were told
that both GLL and Triathlon will provide a visible on-site management
presence as residents begin to move into the village. We welcome
this move, and hope that active on-site management by the two
landlords will be maintained in the longer-term.
279. The LLDC explained how the success of the
East Village would have an impact upon the approaches local residents
take to future neighbourhoods developed within the Park:
"The way in which it fills up and the stories
that are told about the East Village will influence profoundly
how people approach and enter into our new developmentwhether
people in social housing have really chosen to go there or go
there because they have to. Those are the things that make a big
difference to a community".
280. We note the ambitious measures that have
been taken to secure an integrated mix of housing tenures within
the village. It will be important for both landlords to continue
to maintain a strong visible presence on-site. The success of
the village will have a direct bearing on future developments
within the Park, and beyond.
281. We recommend that Triathlon Homes, GLL
and, where appropriate, the LLDC, monitor how this mix of tenures
works when fully occupied, how this might evolve over time, and
develop robust plans for overcoming any identified challenges.
We recommend that the office of the Mayor, and the London Borough
of Newham, should consider how well the village is working when
fully occupied. (Recommendation 18)
New neighbourhoods within the
282. The East Village was built to meet the specifications
of an Olympic Athletes Village. This brought design benefits,
particularly in terms of security and accessibility. It also meant
that the accommodation was delivered through a relatively unique
set of funding arrangements, which have allowed affordable housing
of a high quality to be provided. This funding regime will not
be replicated in other new residential developments within the
Park. Whilst accepting these constraints, we hope that the Village
can act as an exemplar for the new neighbourhoods. It will be
important for new housing within the Park, and within the wider
regeneration of East London, to seek to meet the high standards
set within the Village.
283. The Legacy Communities Scheme, developed
in 2011, set out plans for five new, additional, housing neighbourhoods
within the Park. Under this scheme, outline planning permission
exists for a further 6,684 homes; the LLDC has a policy of bringing
forward up to 35% affordable housing across the piece, split approximately
into thirds of social housing, intermediate housing and shared
284. The first of these neighbourhoods, Chobham
Manor, which will deliver around 800 homes, is currently being
developed by Chobham Manor LLP, a partnership of Taylor Wimpey
and London and Quadrant Housing, and will comprise of affordable
rent houses, shared ownership and outright sales properties. This
development is less dense than the East Village, with smaller
blocks and what London & Quadrant described as more "typical
Around 70-75% of the properties will be family homes, with three
bedrooms or more, across all types of tenure.
285. The precise definition of a 'family home',
and the number of bedrooms required, is contentious. Many families
in communities adjacent to the Park have large numbers; some are
multi-generational. LLDC told us that, of the 6,684 homes set
out in the Legacy Communities Scheme, it was currently envisaged
that 570 would have 4 or more bedrooms. This may change when detailed
designs are developed.
286. London & Quadrant told us that they
were providing a higher proportion of family homes within their
development than would normally be the case; they were also looking
at providing a small number of multi-generational homes, in which
grandparents could live with extended family.
The Chief Executive of LLDC, whilst recognising the need for larger
family homes, maintained that the Olympic Park alone could not
solve the housing need of the whole of the area.
287. The boroughs surrounding the Olympic
Park have a relatively high number of families who require more
than three bedrooms. It is vital that new housing within the Park
is accessible to, and suitable for, local residents.
288. We recommend that the LLDC undertake
a robust assessment of the level of such need within the area,
and use this to require developers to make appropriate provision
when bringing forward new housing within the Park. It is important
that new housing reflects the needs of local people. (Recommendation
289. The measures which were taken to promote
sustainable construction in the design and build of the Olympic
Park have attracted praise from a number of quarters.
The developments themselves followed Secured by Design principles.
The running of the Games also operated to a relatively high sustainability
standard; a new International Standard for event sustainability
has been developed and approved in light of the experience of
290. Having set high standards before and during
the Games, it is important that post-Games development within
the Park continues to promote sustainable design, build and management.
London and Quadrant told us that this was happening at Chobham
Manor, with a link to the combined heat and power network, promotion
of cycle use and higher levels of sustainability in terms of water
and energy use. The LLDC told us that they were adopting the ODA's
practices for construction and material re-use. New housing would
meet the requirements of Code for Sustainable Homes Level 4, although
LLDC committed to going further, towards Level 5.
291. Notwithstanding the LLDC's undertaking on
levels of sustainability, there were general concerns within the
written evidence received by the Committee that the innovative,
exemplary approaches seen before the Games were not being promoted
to the same extent in legacy. Code for Sustainable Homes Level
4 was described as "increasingly common practice"; the
iconic nature of the Olympic Park was cited as one reason for
wishing to see new standards set, rather than existing standards
292. We welcome the measures that are currently
being taken to promote sustainable design, construction and energy
use, and to follow Secured by Design principles, on the Olympic
Park. The Park is, however, an iconic site and should be capable
of setting an example in this regard.
293. We recommend that the LLDC and development
partners should consider what further steps they could take to
promote sustainability on the site and should seek to promote
the highest possible standards in security and in efficient, viable,
sustainable design and construction. The LLDC should seek to retain,
wherever possible, the feel-good factor of naming roads, buildings
and facilities with an association of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic
Games in mind. (Recommendation 20)
294. We were told about the measures that were
being taken to develop and support an integrated, sustainable
new residential community within the Park. A new schoolChobham
Academyhas already opened, and further new schools are
planned. Health and medical facilities are beginning to open and
new retail outlets are also planned.
295. Lord Mawson told us that, when it came to
supporting the development of a sustainable community, the public
sector could only do so much:
"I think that the team understands that
the future is not about the public sector doing everything for
us. The public sector's job is to create the conditions in which
entrepreneurs, creatives and business people can get on and build
a new world. It is about joining the dots, building relationships
and removing some of the fragmentation
It may be that six
town centres are going to be built. If we think about that as
a whole and begin to connect it by giving a narrative both to
the world and to ourselves about it
I think that the regeneration
legacy of the Olympics could be very considerable indeed".
296. We asked the LLDC if they were confident
that the plans for housing within the Park would create communities
that were cohesive and sustainable in the longer-term. In the
Chief Executive's view:
"the harder you try to create a community,
the less successful you are. If you look at the way that some
communities have come into being, it is probably because of the
people moving into an area having common cause and striving to
come together. That has created a great sense of community among
people with common cause".
297. We do not believe that the creation of a
new community on this scale is a wholly organic process. It will
be important for the LLDC to continue to ensure the delivery of
supporting social and community infrastructure within the Park.
As one example, we would hope that the LLDC can work with the
legacy operators of leisure facilities within the Park to ensure
affordable, easy access for local residents.
298. The Olympic Park will eventually house
over 10,000 new households. These residents will be living close
to major sporting and leisure facilities and an emerging commercial
and business centre. This is a new community, with no collective
history. The LLDC should consider the long-term sustainability,
security and cohesion of the community that they are creating
to be amongst their highest priorities; ultimate responsibility
for this lies with the office of the Mayor. (Recommendation
299. The Mayor, in the annual report specified
in Recommendation 16, should make clear the steps that are being
taken to deliver supporting infrastructure within the Olympic
Park. This social and community infrastructure should be capable
of being sustained beyond the eventual winding-down of the LLDC
itself. (Recommendation 22)
Housing challenges outside the
300. The boroughs which played host to the Olympics
have, historically, had house prices which are lower than the
London average. Elected representatives of these boroughs told
us that the situation had already started to change, and that
house prices were increasing, heightening issues of affordability.
Cllr Robbins told us that :
"The prices are ridiculous. For young people,
young families coming and buying on the open market, the only
way they can get in is shared ownership schemes. The cost of properties
is still, in my view, exorbitant, and I think that is a major
problem. I have no idea how the country is going to deal with
that, but we are pricing a whole generation of people out of London
Obviously, the improvements that we have seen as a consequence
of the Olympics will only make that situation worse".
301. We heard concerns that the "Olympic
effect" would increase house prices still further in surrounding
areas, leading to convergence being achieved through gentrification,
rather than improved outcomes for current residents.
The Chief Executive of the LLDC outlined the difficulty of this
issue, suggesting that, on one measure, increasing house prices
could be seen as an outcome of successful regeneration. The LLDC
was committed to working with local authorities to manage such
302. One measure which could be taken partly
to address this problem would be to bring forward additional housing
supply in the areas concerned. We heard that 40% of the land holdings
of the GLA are in one of the host boroughs, Barking and Dagenham.
The local authority has long argued for additional development
on these sites. The Riverside site in Barking and Dagenhampartially
owned by the GLAhas planning consent for 11,000 dwellings
but has seen fewer than 300 actually constructed. Cllr Rocky Gill,
the Deputy Leader of the Borough told us that this was "ridiculous,
bearing in mind the comments made about a shortage of housing
303. A similar picture was described in the Royal
Borough of Greenwich, which also played host to 2012 events. There,
the local authority has granted planning permission for over 32,000
homes since 2002, but only 12,900 have been built. Its Leader
Cllr Chris Roberts told us that "Our major problem is land-banking".
304. There is a risk that successful development
of the Olympic Park will contribute to a further increase in house
prices in the surrounding area. There is, however, potential for
significant further housing development in other parts of the
host boroughs. We believe it essential that the Mayor's office
brings forward housing development on these sites, helping to
facilitate supporting infrastructure where required. This is particularly
the case for those sites that are owned, fully or in part, by
the GLA itself. The developments on these sites should follow
the same principles as set out in Recommendation 20.
The Employment and Skills Legacy
EMPLOYMENT FOR LOCAL RESIDENTS
305. The Government described convergence as:
"an organising framework for coordinating
the activities of the Boroughs and partners in support of comprehensive
regeneration of East London
by improving job and other
economic opportunities through capitalising on planned major developments
in the area, and improving the labour market potential of local
residents through a skills uplift, net additional GVA of £6-7billion
per annum could be generated by 2030, along with a £4-5.5billion
improvement in the UK's public finances".
Central to the goal of convergence is the ability
to move residents of the host boroughs into employment. Whilst
some of the indicators of convergence have seen improvement in
recent years, unemployment within the host boroughs is still amongst
the highest in the region; resident employment rates are currently
5.5% below the regional average.
306. There is great potential for employment
growth in the wider area around the Park. A 2011 report by Oxford
Economics identified 20 major sites within the six host boroughs
with planning permission and private sector partners. These sites
could account for approximately £19billion of investment
and, combined with increased activity in complementary industries,
deliver an additional 190,400 jobs by 2030.
307. We received a significant amount of evidence
citing additional employment which had been generated by developments
to date, and which would be generated by development in future.
Over 10,000 new permanent jobs have been created at Westfield
Stratford City, although this was planned before the Games.
The Stratford City development as a whole, of which Westfield
forms part, will provide 30,000 jobs; many of these jobs will
be existing roles within tenant organisations that move to the
area, although some (including the construction roles) will be
308. The Government's 2010 Legacy Plan outlined
the expectation that the Park itself would support between 8,000
and 10,000 jobs on site. The Olympic Press and Broadcasting Centre
has now been taken over by iCITY, which is seeking to create a
centre housing creative and digital businesses of varying size
and scale. iCITY promises to create 6,000 jobs (4,000 direct on
site, with another 2,000 in the local area), and is already 40%
let. We visited
iCITY, and the BT Sport studios contained within the facility,
and were impressed by the speed at which jobs and economic activity
had been delivered into the former Press and Broadcasting Centre.
309. It is apparent, therefore, that employment
opportunities are being created in and around the Park, with the
promise of significant further additional opportunities to be
created in future. What is less clear, however, is the extent
to which local residents are benefitting, or will stand to benefit,
from these opportunities. Some schemes intended to serve this
purpose, such as the GLA Employment Legacy Project, were scaled
back after the Games, having failed to meet their initial targets.
The review of the GLA Employment and Skills Legacy Programme found
that, where people had been helped into employment, the support
required to sustain them in that employment was often not provided.
310. We were told that, at the end of June 2013,
36% of construction phase jobs provided through the LLDC were
being carried out by local people (against a target of 25%). 90%
of LLDC apprentices are local. What is not clear, however, is
the extent to which these figures include long-term residents
of the boroughs, or whether they include those who have migrated
to the host boroughs specifically to seek this employment. Sir Robin
Wales told us that, before the Games, about one-third of the local
residents employed by the ODA to build the Park had come from
outside the area to take up the employment.
311. We were told that iCITY is seeking to provide
local people with opportunities by building local employment requirements
into the tenancy agreements that it makes with creative and digital
companies. Furthermore, almost a third of the 10,000 new jobs
created at Westfield went to local, previously long-term unemployed
people. The achievement of Westfield in this regard shows that
opportunities can be extended to local residents.
312. There is a perception in local communities
that they have received little benefit from the employment opportunities
generated. When the Committee visited the Canning Town and Custom
House Renewal Project to speak with local residents, the majority
view was that employment opportunities in retail and construction
had gone to people from outside the area; there was also a perception
that the jobs which had been created were fewer and worse paid
than expected. This perception is clearly felt elsewhere; the
London School of Economics conducted research with Newham residents
in early 2012 and found "general frustration over the difficulty
of tapping into economic activity developed by the Olympics".
313. It is clear, therefore, that more needs
to be done to communicate the availability of new job opportunities
created by and through the legacy programmes. The residents who
we spoke to felt that it was not always clear how to go about
applying for opportunities in and around the Park.
314. The Olympic venues themselves, when operating
in 'legacy mode', should offer further employment opportunities.
The first venue to open, the Copper Box, has a relatively small
workforce of 52; 90% of these employees were recruited from the
host boroughs. The remaining venues should offer more substantial
employment opportunities, which must be made available to locals.
315. Developments within and around the Park
will generate new job opportunities. We recommend that the LLDC,
employers and the host boroughs do more to communicate the availability
of these opportunities to local residents. These bodies should
develop a coordinated programme through which employment opportunities
at the venues within the Park are made available to local residents,
with clear and targeted communications to support local employment.
The skills challenge
316. In addition to communicating the availability
of new opportunities to residents, it is also important to consider
how local people can be supported to develop the skills needed
to access new jobs. The Mayor of London described this as "one
of the great challenges we face, particularly in London but in
the country as a whole".
317. We believe that a more concerted, long-term
effort is required to provide local residents with the requisite
skills to allow them to access these new opportunities. Such an
effort will need to involve a multitude of local partners, and
focus upon a number of emerging employment sectors within the
area. The most obvious immediate opportunity is in the construction
318. To develop the 20 major sites mentioned
in paragraph x will clearly require a sustained period
of construction activity across large parts of east London. In
this context, the Olympic Park is only one small part of a much
larger whole. These developments should deliver a significant
number of construction jobs which, we hope, would be made available
proactively to local residents. It does not seem to us, however,
that long-term residents of the host boroughs have been significantly
involved in the construction work that has taken place to date.
Long-term unemployed locals will need targeted attention and help
to compete for job opportunities, and can expect to face competition
from mobile, proactive workers from outside the area.
319. We believe that efforts to provide staff
to the major construction sites across East London would benefit
from long-term additional investment in the skills base of the
320. We recommend that the Mayor, the GLA,
employers and the host boroughs work together to develop and invest
in a construction skills programme through which a coordinated
approach can be taken to making skilled staff available for the
wide range of major development sites across the host boroughs.
321. Construction is not the only sector in which
new employment opportunities can be anticipated. The Prime Minister
has spoken about his ambition to "bring together the creativity
and energy of Shoreditch and the incredible possibilities of the
Olympic Park to help make East London one of the world's great
technology centres". It is possible to envisage significant
new opportunities in the creative, digital and ICT sector in and
around the Olympic Park in forthcoming years.
322. iCITY told the Committee that:
"The other major challenge facing these
industries is the ever-growing skills shortage among UK workers.
It is particularly galling that while 1 in 5 young people are
unemployed, vast numbers of jobs are available in industries that
many of these young people would love to work in: video game development,
coding, software developers. 77% of companies in and around Shoreditch,
Hackney and Stratford state that a lack of access to skilled workers
is restricting their growth".
323. The shortage of skilled workers in this
area could be met, in part, by the local population. Provision
of the relevant training and learning opportunities should therefore
be made a priority. Hackney Community College has recently committed
to deliver a new digital apprenticeship, at iCITY, to students.
We were told in evidence that "this must be hugely scaled
up if we are to keep pace with the demands of these industries
for skilled workers".
324. A lack of access to skilled workers is
currently restricting the growth of creative, digital and ICT
businesses in the area around the Olympic Park. There are likely
to be significant future employment opportunities available in
325. We recommend that the Mayor, local authorities,
educational institutions and employers work together to provide
a coordinated response to meeting skills shortages in this area.
326. New opportunities for employment in East
London will not be limited solely to the two sectors that we have
discussed above. A growing service economy in the area, coupled
with major commercial investment that is likely to be attracted
to the Olympic Park, will provide further, more diverse opportunities.
These sectors will also require new, skilled workers. Local residents
should be supported in developing the skills needed to access
327. Interventions to support local residents
in developing the skills needed to access new jobs should not
be limited to the two sectors that we have outlined above. Enhanced
delivery of appropriate skills, education and training opportunities
will be vital if the growth boroughs are to meet their convergence
aims. We believe that the Mayor's office should demonstrate support
for convergence by prioritising the skills challenge in the host
328. The office of the Mayor should work with
local authorities and education providers to provide an ongoing
structure for delivering targeted support, aimed at giving local
residents the skills, confidence and aspirations needed to access
jobs in those sectors that are most likely to deliver employment
opportunities. These plans should be developed following consultation
with local employers. (Recommendation 26)
The Transport Legacy
INVESTING IN INFRASTRUCTURE
329. Between 2005 and 2012 around £6.5 billion
was invested into transport infrastructure, principally within
London, to support the Games. Southeastern trains and TfL told
us that many of the plans for this investment were already in
place before the Games, but that the Olympics gave the plans an
imperative and a level of focus.
The Deputy Chair of LLDC acknowledged that the full £6.5
billion investment was not all due to the Olympics, but stressed
that the funding of some projectssuch as work on the East
London Linewas directly influenced by the Games.
330. The major investment made into transport
infrastructure in east London has significantly enhanced the connectivity
of Stratford and the surrounding area. The LLDC are now marketing
Stratford as the best connected station in London; it is currently
the 6th busiest station in the UK. When Crossrail becomes operational
in 2018, 17 million people will be within a 90 minute commute
This should have a significant catalytic effect on regeneration
in the area.
331. One major success of the Games was the operation
of the Javelin service, using Southeastern trains on the High
Speed One line to take passengers from St Pancras to Stratford
in 7 minutes. Southeastern told us that usage of this service
exceeded their expectations.
332. The travelcards issued with tickets for
the Olympic and Paralympic games allowed passengers to travel
on these high speed services; under normal circumstances the services
are not available to regular users of TfL travelcards and Oystercards.
TfL told us that they were: "really keen to have Oyster on
the Javelin service, particularly when it is used during major
events. If we want to provide a seamless journey for people, being
able to use Oyster pay as you go is something we are strongly
333. Southeastern trains told us that they were
not opposing such a development, and were looking into how it
could be made to work.
Their Chief Executive stated that:
"If the Department for Transport willed
that to happen and wished that to happen, it is very easy through
our contract for them to enact that change".
334. The Javelin high speed train services
were a major success story of the Games. We support efforts to
make these services available to regular users of the London transport
system, through travelcard and oystercard services.
335. We recommend that TfL, Southeastern trains
and, where appropriate, the Department for Transport, work to
bring about this positive change. (Recommendation 27)
336. Passengers travelling to the Games on these
high speed services arrived at Stratford International station.
Stratford International has received more than £1billion
of public investment to equip it for high speed, international
services. There is, however, no international service using the
station at present. The station opened in 2009.
337. The Chief Executive of High Speed One (HS1)
told us that "all of the big costs have been dealt with"
and that "fitting out Stratford for trains to stop there
less than £10 million, so we are in small
numbers versus the overall investment".
She made clear that her company had been involved in a number
of discussions with potential international train operators, but
that these had not yet come to fruition. The incumbent operatorEurostarplaces
a heavy weighting on the speed of their journeys, and is of the
view that any benefits accrued from stopping at Stratford are
offset by delays to their journey times.
338. Whilst we understand that HS1 are working
upon this issue, the nature of support from national and regional
Government is less clear. We were told that the Mayor has had
discussions with potential operators;
the Mayor was confident that the situation would be resolved by
2016, when it is hoped that Deutsche Bahn will commence services.
We did not get the sense that there was any over-arching ownership
or coordination of this issue within Government.
339. A substantial public investment has been
made into Stratford International station but there are, as yet,
no international services using this station. It is, in our view,
vital that efforts to secure an international service at the station
are intensified; whilst it is not essential that all trains stop
there, it is essential that some trains begin to stop there.
340. We recommend that the Department for
Transport take proper ownership of this issue, and give a higher
level of priority to the need to secure a return on the substantial
investment made at Stratford International. (Recommendation
341. Although the eastern edge of the Park is
well served by public transport, we were told that access to the
western side of the Park was not as good.
The road network, which includes the A12, acts as a physical barrier
to the Park, whilst the transport links in this area have not
seen the same scale of investment.
342. iCITY, which will be a major employer within
the Park, is located close to the western boundary. The Chief
Executive of iCITY told us that, in his view, the London Overground
station at Hackney Wick was the best route into that part of the
Park. Plans to
redevelop the station are being drawn up; we believe that it is
essential that these plans take full account of the likely intensification
of usage resulting from the need to access this part of the Park.
343. The Chief Executive of the LLDC explained
that they were also working on this issue, and were examining
cycle routes into the western side of the Park, as well as potential
pedestrian crossings over the A12. He made clear that financial
investmentof under £10 millionwould be required
to improve the situation.
344. The eastern end of the Olympic Park benefits
from good connectivity and clear access points. This is not the
case on the western side of the Park, which is to be the location
of one of the major employment sites in the area.
345. We recommend that the LLDC, TfL and local
authorities continue to work together to enhance access to the
west of the Park. Resolving this issue is likely to require further
investment. (Recommendation 29)
Maintaining Games-time improvements
346. The challenge of hosting the Games encouraged
public transport providers to consider new ways of working together,
and also instituted a wider range of improvements to signage and
accessibility. Many of these improvements can be sustained in
normal, everyday operation, at relatively little extra cost. This
offers considerable benefits to London as a whole.
347. One such positive legacy is the Travel Demand
Management Board, which consists of train operators in London,
TfL and Network Rail coming together to coordinate services ahead
of major challenges. Southeastern trains told us that the experience
of joint working during the Games had been integral to the formation
of this group, which was currently working to mitigate the effects
upon passengers of work to deliver Thameslink.
348. TfL explained that the Games had brought
lessons in how best to use signage, particularly to help disabled
service users. In light of lessons learnt, new signage was now
being applied throughout stations.
Manual boarding ramps had also worked well during the Games; 16
were installed before the Games and provision was now being extended
to a further 19 stations. Baroness Grey-Thompson told us that:
"[a]round London one of the really great things about the
Games was access to public transport and people being slightly
more thoughtful about how things could work".
349. The challenge of hosting the Games encouraged
operators to think more creatively about how they could work together
to manage demand. Greater attention was also paid to the needs
of disabled users, and those who were not familiar with the transport
network. Post-Games, we believe that it is essential that this
focus is not lost. We urge TfL and other providers to continue
to place a high emphasis on improving accessibility.
350. We welcome the fact that joint working
between transport providers seen in the run up to the Games is
now continuing. We recommend that transport providers continue
to work together to mitigate against disruptions caused by major
events and improvement works. (Recommendation 30)
106 University of East London. Back
Q 22. Back
Q 346 Back
London Borough of Newham. Back
Q 494 Back
Emma Boggis. Back
Q 370 Back
Q 359 Back
Q 196 Back
Q 367 Back
Correspondence with Get Living London, October to November 2013. Back
Q 311 Back
Q 310 Back
Q 363. Back
Letter from LLDC, 23rd September. Back
Q 365, Q366 Back
Q 311 Back
BioRegional, London Sustainable Development Commission, Sustainable
Events Ltd. Back
ISO 20121, see written evidence from British Standards Institution. Back
Andrew Boff. Back
Q 497 Back
Q 348 Back
Q 311 Back
Q 197. Back
London Assembly Labour Group. Back
Q 311 Back
Q 226 Back
Q 217 Back
The Government and the Mayor
of London. Back
London Borough of Newham. Back
Oxford Economics, Assessing the Economic Potential of the Golden
Triangle, 2011. Figures provided are based on a 2013 update to
the initial report. Back
See the Olympic Jobs Evaluation, Final Report by SQW: http://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/GLA%20Olympic%20Jobs%20Final%20report.pdf
Q 200 Back
LSE Centre for Analysis and Social Exclusion, The Olympic Legacy:
Headline Findings, 2012. Back
Q 496 Back
Q 244, Q 245 Back
Q 14 Back
Lend Lease. Back
Q 247 Back
Q 248 Back
Q 248 Back
Q 438, Q 433 Back
Q 434 Back
Q 436 Back
Q 498 Back
Hackney Community Safety Social Inclusion Scrutiny Commission,
London Assembly Labour Group. Back
Q 272 Back
Q 309, Q 320 Back
Q 249 Back
Q 254 Back
Q 140 Back