Select Committee on Social Mobility
Overlooked and left behind: improving the transition from school to work for the majority of young people

Report - published 8 April 2016 - HL Paper 120



Summary of conclusions and recommendations

Chapter 1: Introduction

The focus of our inquiry

Most young people, especially those who do not follow an academic route, are ‘overlooked’

Figure 1: attainment at GCSE

Figure 2: Post-16 participation by main qualification studied by 16 and 17 year olds (2014)

Transitions to work

Figure 3: Qualification levels and equivalents

Those from privileged backgrounds remain more likely to succeed

Figure 4: Income inequality

What is social mobility?

Box 1: ‘Great Gatsby’ curve

Box 2: factors which may affect social mobility

Measuring social mobility

Labour market changes

Box 3: What are low-, intermediate-, and high-skilled jobs?

Figure 5: Detailed changes by occupation (000s)

Our inquiry

Chapter 2: The labour market and employers’ expectations

Box 4: The labour market

What do employers say they need?

Skills for work

Recruitment practices

Box 5: Formal and informal recruitment

Formal recruitment

Informal recruitment

Box 6: large, medium and small employers

Chapter 3: The transition from school to work

Routes into work

Young people in the middle

Recent policy focus and the effects on the labour market

What do young people in the middle study?

Non-academic routes to work

Table 1: Different qualification levels

Box 7: Changes to upper secondary and adult qualifications


Box 8: The Enterprise Bill

Chapter 4: Inequality between academic and vocational routes to work

Cultural inequality

International examples

Box 9: A dual system of vocational and academic routes to work

Box 10: A mainstream system of vocational and academic learning

Box 11: The 2013 Wood Commission

Incentives for schools and colleges

Performance tables

Box 12: Extract from the evidence by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation

New Initiatives to Promote Balanced Curricula

Funding incentives for schools and colleges


Further education funding

Box 13: Schools, sixth form colleges and further education colleges

University funding vs further education funding

Table 2: National funding rate per full-time student (who are not high needs) 2015 to 16

Funding for people who turn 19 during their course

The impact of funding reductions on further education colleges

Funding of independent training providers

Political will

Chapter 5: Informing and advising young people

Careers education and careers guidance

Box 15: Careers education and careers guidance

The Education Act 2011

Box 14: The Careers and Enterprise Company and the National Careers Service

The value of careers education and guidance for young people from disadvantaged backgrounds

A single entry point for non-academic progression routes

Experience of work

Box 15: The National Citizen Service

Inspection of careers education and guidance by Ofsted

Chapter 6: Making transitions work for those in the middle

The aim of post-16 education in England

Education from age 14

Level 3 qualifications

Literacy and numeracy and digital

Eligibility for carers allowance and jobseekers allowance

Young carers

Labour market information

Chapter 7: Improving and Expanding Use of Data

Different demographic factors

Linked data

Box 16: Administrative data

Unique pupil numbers

Unique learner numbers

Personalised learning records

Individualised learner records

A complete picture?

Making destinations data available

Using the data available

Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission report - March 2015

Chapter 8: Incentivising Employer Involvement

Incentives for Employers

Financial incentives

Environmental, Social and Governance matters

Non-financial incentives

Local collaboration

Brokerage as a means to aid SMEs


Box 17: City deals and devolution across England

Box 18: Greater Manchester Combined Authority

Box 19: Leeds City Region Enterprise Partnership

Local labour markets

Chapter 9: A clearer policy framework and more effective delivery mechanism

Social mobility in the transition from school to work

A lack of coherence

Frequent policy change

The Government’s role

Responsibility within central government

The changing devolution settlement

Appendix 1: List of Members and declarations of interest

Appendix 2: List of witnesses

Appendix 3: Call for evidence

Appendix 4: Note of Focus Group: Tuesday 27 October 2015

Appendix 5: Note of Committee visit to Lilian Baylis Technology School: Wednesday 4 November 2015

Appendix 6: Note of Committee visit to Derby: Tuesday 24 November 2015

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