Improving the transition from school to work Contents

Chapter 5: Informing and advising young people

“Advice I was given was not helpful and often not relevant to my situation.”316

198.We wanted to know whether young people were given good advice about routes to work - academic and otherwise. This included looking at careers education and guidance in England and how young people learnt about the world of work. The Secretary of State for Education, Mrs Morgan, told us: “the honest truth … is there has never been a golden age of careers advice.” Government after government has sought to address the problems with the provision of information and guidance to young people. None has managed to find the solution. This is failing young people greatly. Every young person should have access to independent, impartial careers advice.

Careers education and careers guidance

199.Careers education and guidance are important for social mobility. This is because knowing about the options available, and the skills needed to navigate those options, are a key part of a successful transition to work.317 It is important to understand the difference between the two as outlined in Box 15 below.

Box 15: Careers education and careers guidance

Careers education is learning about the world of work. It is meant to help you learn about the opportunities available to you for future jobs. It teaches and enables you to make a decision. Schools have traditionally been responsible for careers education.

Careers guidance is linked to career education. It is more personalised advice on how to best use your skills to develop the career you want.

The Education Act 2011

200.The Education Act 2011 made schools responsible for providing independent and impartial careers advice and guidance.318 Before that change, local authorities were required to provide a careers service which would provide such guidance. The Act also removed the statutory duty for schools to provide careers education.319 Lord Hill of Oareford, then an Education Minister, said changes would “improve the quality and professionalism of services” related to careers advice. 320

201.Independent and impartial careers advice is important.321 The 2011 Act defined ‘independent’ as advice that was external to the school, i.e. provided by someone not employed by the school. It defined ‘impartial’ as showing no bias towards any education or work option.322 These principles are welcome. We have already discussed, however, how the funding and performance table system does not incentivise schools to give independent careers advice.

202.Some of our witnesses told us that the Education Act 2011 had not improved the quality of careers education and guidance. Careers England said it was a “downward step change in careers preparation” and “the biggest change in careers support for young people in almost 40 years.” 323 The Prince’s Trust told us, as a result of the Act, that “schools have become increasingly focused on preparing for exams and less focused on preparing young people for the world of work.” 324 Many of our witnesses told us that current provision was poor. 325

Careers and Enterprise Company and the National Careers Service

203.Since the Education Act 2011, the Government has established the National Careers Service and the Careers and Enterprise Company (see Box 15). The Local Government Association said: “National Careers Service (NCS) provision to young people is weak and adds further fragmentation and confusion. In its first year the NCS had just 27,500 contacts from 16- to 18-year-olds, equivalent to just 1.4 per cent of the age group.”326

Box 14: The Careers and Enterprise Company and the National Careers Service

The National Careers Service was launched in April 2012. It provides information on learning and work options, and has professional advisors who can give advice on what two years choices to make. Its online and telephone help service can be accessed by anyone over 13 but face-to-face advice is available for adults aged 19 or over, or those aged 18 and over and in receipt of Jobseekers allowance

The Careers and Enterprise Company has been established to “inspire young people and help them to prepare for and take control of their futures.”327 It hopes to achieve this by helping young people link their education to their future careers, and to develop skills. The Company wants to increase employer engagement with schools.

It is based in London, and was funded with £20 million from the Department for Education for the first year of its existence. The Company is independent of Government, but works closely with the relevant Departments to inform policy. The company will deliver its objectives through the following programme of work:
On-the-ground support and brokerage programme: setting up a network of enterprise advisers to broker strong and extensive links at local level between schools and colleges and employers, focusing on areas where provision will have the most impact;

  • Investment fund: using a minimum of £5 million to fund activities that directly result in more and higher quality careers, enterprise and employer engagement activity;
  • Enterprise passport: developing and piloting a passport that will record young people’s achievements beyond the curriculum, helping them to develop their enterprise skills, boost their appeal to employers and incentivise them to participate in a wide range of extra-curricular activities; and
  • Research: mapping and reporting on employer engagement in schools and colleges; development and dissemination of a fact base around ‘what works’ to help schools and employers prioritise activity and maximise impact.

The Careers and Enterprise Company

204.The Careers and Enterprise Company already has a remit to increase education-employer partnerships. Although it is recently established, our witnesses were hopeful that it may address some of the key challenges which we discussed earlier in this report.328

205.However, the British Chambers of Commerce warned us that “it is unclear whether the Careers and Enterprise Company will have enough political and spending clout to bring about the transformative change that is needed.”329 Neil Carberry told us that, given what it has to achieve, “the investment in the Careers and Enterprise Company is small beer”.330 Jack Feintuck, of the Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission, suggested that the remit of the CEC was perhaps too wide:

“The Government set up their Careers and Enterprise Company, which will try to fill some of these gaps [in links between businesses and schools]. The Commission has written about the potential for this and has made some suggestions about how it could focus slightly more narrowly on a few elements. For example, it could make sure that it is targeting less advantaged areas and pupils, that the board represents expertise in advice and guidance in the education sector and applies some regional consideration, because is the requirement is going to be different between different places, and that the impact of it is evaluated as well, because there is quite a big investment here. There is a challenge regarding business engagement, but there is the potential to do something about it as well.”331

206. We note that the Careers and Enterprise Company is a new development, and it is too soon to assess its impact. We asked for, but did not receive, evidence from the CEC. Even so, we consider that the existence of the CEC provides a good starting point for the development of a more coherent single structure with the potential to be effective in improving the transition from school to work. To develop into this sort of effective body, it would have to be given the funding, political support and co-operation from all national and local stakeholders to realise its potential.

The value of careers education and guidance for young people from disadvantaged backgrounds

207.OCR told us that poor careers guidance has the greatest impact on young people not doing A-Levels or going onto university. 332 This is because a lot of careers guidance for young people comes from their teachers. Teachers often have only experienced the A-Level/university route themselves and do not have much personal experience of other routes into work. Our witnesses who commented on the responsibility of schools for providing advice all shared this concern.333 It is a concern shared by teachers themselves. 80 per cent of teachers surveyed in 2013 felt they did not have the knowledge to give careers advice, and half felt they had given poor advice. 334 Some respondents to our online survey said their support tended to push them towards academic routes: “… most support was determined for me to go the route everyone does 6th form or college then university and I didn’t really learn about everything else out there, I had to research myself”.335

208.Careers guidance in schools provides advice and information which people from disadvantaged backgrounds may not have access to elsewhere.336 82 per cent of the young people who answered our survey said their parents were their biggest source of advice. Some parents will have contacts and positive experiences of the transition into work that they can share. Given that not all young people will be able to draw on parents’ advice, it is important that all can learn about routes into work at school either to supplement what they are able to glean form their own networks and contacts or to ensure those without this support are not at a disadvantage.337 We note that parenting can take many forms and is about the people who act in a parenting capacity towards a young person, whether that be family members, or members of the community.

209.As discussed in Chapter 4, the provision of independent advice to young people is placed at risk by the funding mechanism and an emphasis on academic performance. OCR—a UK awarding body—told us that “… schools want to keep the more academic students to benefit their performance tables, regardless of what is in the best interests of the young person.”338

210.This can result in schools giving advice to pupils which focuses more on what the school offers than what suits those who would prefer vocational education and training routes. For example, a young person who completed our survey said:

“During my time at secondary school, it was drummed into me that I should continue onto the school’s sixth form, which I did not want to do … I did my own research and attended college open days off my own back, which is why I went to college and studied for a BTEC National Diploma.”339

211.ThinkForward told us that the focus on academic subjects results in poor advice on vocational qualifications. This means “many young people either make inappropriate choices between vocational or academic pathways, or those who opt for vocational routes start their training at a level below where they could be studying, therefore slowing their potential career trajectory.”340 Our witnesses overwhelmingly identified this as a problem.341 High Peak Borough Council and Staffordshire Moorlands District Council told us that “this is resulting is high drop-out rates from A-Level routes at age 17 which is both costly to the public purse, and to the individual young people (who waste their time and perhaps become discouraged from continuing training education).”

212.The range of options available to young people to transition from school into work is complex (see paragraphs 81–98). This makes it difficult for young people to know which courses and training options will lead to the best careers. The respondents to our survey told us there was limited guidance available to them aside from A-Levels and staying on at the same school or college. One respondent said: “they glorified going to college and then university afterwards rather than informing you of all your choices.”342 Alan Milburn told us: “There is something quite fundamental in the way the system is designed. It is designed almost to induce more complexity and the wrong choices.”343 The qualifications “jungle” is difficult to navigate when relevant and personalised information and advice is not available.

213.There have been a number of influential reports which have looked into the quality of careers advice and guidance in great detail. Of particular note are reports in 2013 by the House of Commons Education Committee and by Ofsted. The Education Committee concluded that:

“Our inquiry has highlighted grave shortcomings in the implementation of the Government’s policy of transferring responsibility for careers guidance to schools, not least the inadequacy of the means by which schools can be held accountable for their fulfilment of this duty. These issues must be addressed as a matter of urgency … Young people deserve better than the service they are likely to receive under current arrangements.”344

214.Meanwhile Ofsted concluded that:

“Too few schools are providing careers guidance that meets the needs of all their students. It is, nevertheless, possible for schools to provide good-quality independent and impartial careers guidance to young people.”345

215.These reports focused on the changes made to the provision of careers education and guidance as a result of the 2011 Act. Both reports highlight some of the problems that have arisen in the wake of the Act. We hope that the group of young people not doing A-Levels or going to university can be recognised as those most at risk of suffering as a result of these problems.346

216.A number of our witnesses identified the features of good careers education and guidance and suggested changes to the current system. Malcom Trobe, Deputy General Secretary of the Association of School and College Leaders, was critical of the reliance on online media in providing guidance: “There is too much, ‘They’ll be able to get it off the internet’. I am sorry, but some of these youngsters do not have access to the internet and when they do, they are not accessing the type of thing we want them to be looking at. They need one-to-one advice.”347 Many young people we spoke to said that they had been directed to websites. This is not good enough. Our witnesses agreed that face-to-face guidance was needed to help young people understand the range of options available to them.348

217.Our witnesses agreed that careers education and guidance should start at an earlier age than it currently does.349 Nick Chambers, Director of the charity Education and Employers Taskforce, told us that “young people’s perceptions … are formed at an early age, even at primary, and they rule out all sorts of routes. It is really important that young people have a wide experience of the world of work.”350 This is what happens in a number of other countries. In Switzerland careers guidance begins in the early years of secondary education.351 In Denmark, guidance begins in primary school and a specialist careers guidance officer gives advice on the routes (both vocational and academic) open to students.352 Education and job classes are attended by all primary school children, and in secondary education (and upon completion of secondary education) young people receive guidance on careers and further education in centres located around the country.

218.Some of our witnesses told us that careers education should be linked to the local labour market. New Economy told us that this would “enable young people to better understand the supply of jobs in a local area and to make more well-informed decisions about the pathways they take.”353 It is important to know about the nature of jobs close to home as a move away from support networks or dependents is not a realistic opportunity for many young people. It is equally important that aspirations are not narrowed only to those which can be met locally.

219.It is clear that there are serious concerns about the poor quality of careers information, advice and guidance being given to young people, and that these must be addressed. It is not however, the only issue. Professor Ann Hodgson told us that addressing careers guidance “is seen as a sticking plaster over something that is incredibly complex” and that “a much clearer set of route ways and pathways through the system for young people” is required alongside improved guidance and experience of work.354

220.During our inquiry, we visited the International Centre for Guidance Studies at the University of Derby. We were struck by the quality of evidence from the staff there. In particular, the Centre corroborated our written and oral evidence on a number of issues. Specifically staff at the Centre told us that, ideally, there should be two levels to good careers guidance: something outside of schools that brokered links with employers and the local labour market, and something inside schools and colleges so that pupils were learning about work at the same time as studying.355


“I left school at 16 and the options were not great for me. I did not have anyone who could sit down with me and go through the options available to me. If I had had the help, I might have been able to make a decision. In that time, I was in my shell. Maybe I could have asked for help, but I was insecure and didn’t feel able to ask.”

Khiry, a participant in our focus group on 27 October 2015356

221.Many of our witnesses told us “the current transition system does not provide enough support to young people who do not follow the A-Level and higher education route”.357 Prospects Services, Cascaid, Nacro and ASDAN said the complexity of young people’s needs is not understood and there is limited individual support.358 By support we include individual face-to-face interactions with a named person, such as a mentor.

222.Our witnesses told us there is some support for those not in education, employment or training (NEET) or with special educational needs or disability (SEND). However, they said, there is little focus on other groups including care leavers or those with mental health conditions.359 The support offered is towards a first employment outcome,360 rather than a career. This narrow focus does not raise aspirations, and so limits social mobility.361

223.For young people with no support at home, the picture can be bleak. Dr McKnight told us:

“That is where I think children from disadvantaged families can miss out … if the child does not have that support at home, involving the family and allowing the family to play a key role in the success of the children disadvantages those children who do not have access to that.”362

224.The young people we heard from overwhelmingly talked about what it meant to have little or no support. Sonic, a young adult carer, told us if he “didn’t plough everything into work I’d end up crumbling because there wasn’t any sort of support there for me, personally. I wish there was someone … it doesn’t have to be often, but there was no one there who could pick up on anything.”363

225.Analysis of the results from our online survey suggested careers education and advice should cover a much broader range and the different options that are available and realistic in terms of where different options can take you. The results showed support should not focus just on careers but also include more ‘holistic’ pastoral support that can assist people with difficult or challenging circumstances. 364 It is important, however, to make the distinction between pastoral support and careers education and advice and guidance.

226.When we visited Lilian Baylis Technology School, students told us about a mentoring scheme which helped them. Individual employers mentor year 11 and sixth form students. One young person told us her mentor was a CEO of a law firm and had connections to people in the industry that she otherwise wouldn’t have had access to.365

A single entry point for non-academic progression routes

227.There is a clear process for applying to go to university. It is all done through the University and Colleges Admissions System (UCAS). UCAS is an independent charity whose main role is to operate the application process for British universities and colleges which offer higher education. The courses available are clear. The qualifications needed to get onto them are published. There is an online system of managing the application process.

228.The process is well-known and well-understood. Hertfordshire County Council et al told us that there “is great comfort in the formalised, safe and trusted process of UCAS. There are set dates to respond and long-established traditions on how to get through the system. Teachers themselves have most likely followed that route and it is seen by parents as the ‘grown-up’ option.”366 There is information and guidance available on how the application process works. There is no such process for the majority of other routes into further education, training or work.

229.Some of our witnesses told us that there would be value in a UCAS-style system for other progression routes.367 Professor Gregg told us that a UCAS-style system would tell young people “‘This is the range of qualifications and places. This is how you apply for them’—something that works along the lines of what UCAS does successfully for the graduate routes, available locally.”368

230.The Challenge told us that “the absence of a UCAS-style direct channel linking schools and employers, and facilitating the take-up of traineeships and apprenticeships by young people” causes “miscommunication and information gaps.”369 Without information about alternatives, it stands to reason that young people are guided towards higher education as it is a transition with a clear process underpinning it.

231.In part, this problem has been recognised by the Government. Mr Boles told us that the Government was in “conversation with UCAS about the possibility of including higher-level courses in FE colleges but also apprenticeships in their system.”370 We welcome the recognition that the process for applying for non-university routes needs to be clearer than it is and as accessible as possible. Apprenticeships and high-level courses cannot be the only ones included. It is important to help as many young people as possible navigate the system. For this to be the case, information on how to apply for all courses post-16 needs to be equally available.

Experience of work

232.Many of our witnesses were clear that experience of the workplace and of employers was vital for young people to get a job and to become socially mobile.371 The Secretary of State for Education said: “work experience is very valuable but it has to be high-quality work experience.”372 Ralph Scott highlighted research which showed, “young adults who could recall high levels of employer contacts throughout their education experience were 20 per cent less likely to be NEETs at the end of school and 18 per cent more likely to earn more.”373 But experience also needs to be locally available. We explained in paragraph 190 that 16 and 17 year olds do not travel and even those 18 and over cannot be expected to travel unless they have access to travel money or maintenance money.

233.There are not, however, enough opportunities to experience work available for young people. Professor Paul Gregg said that “the level of work experience that kids have by the time they are 18 is vanishing before our eyes.”374 Moira McKerracher told us that “two-thirds [of employers] say that work experience is a critical or significant factor when they are recruiting, yet under one-third offer some form of work placement or experience to unemployed people, schoolchildren or college students.”375 In Chapter 2, we discussed what skills employers felt school leavers did not have. If they want to recruit people ready for the workplace, employers need to proactively offer experiences of work to school students to help them to develop these skills.

234.In 2012 the Government removed the requirement for compulsory work experience placements at Key Stage 4 in response to the Wolf Report. In 2013 the Government added a requirement that all 16–19 year-olds do work experience as part of their programme of study. A number of our witnesses thought the removal of the legal obligation on schools to provide work experience for under 16s was a mistake. 376 They felt it had led to unreliable provision of work experience opportunities. Many suggested the obligation for schools to arrange work experience be reintroduced.

235.Our evidence was clear that for work experience to have value, it could not be just one or two weeks spent in a business.377 David Nicoll, Director of the Studio Schools Trust, said: “For work experience to be really effective it has to be regular and frequent”.378 Neil Carberry, Director for Employment and Skills at the CBI, said that “if you had a process of saying to schools that everyone in year 10 does a week in June of work experience, that will not add value” and that “a number of interactions with businesses in schools and in the workplace over a number of years” would be more meaningful.379

236.Witnesses also suggested that social action or volunteering by young people should be encouraged to build employability skills.380 Demos stated in a 2014 report that “a large body of evidence shows that the types of skills developed through youth social action offers a range of benefits to young people, in improving educational outcomes and access to jobs.”381 Organisations such as the National Citizen Service provide such an opportunity.382

Box 15: The National Citizen Service

The National Citizen Service is a Government-funded programme for 16- and 17- year-olds in England and Northern Ireland. It was piloted in 2011, and gives young people the opportunity take part in residential activities and community work.

The Service brings together young people from different backgrounds and helps them build skills and to develop socially and personally. Approximately 48,000 people participated in 2014/15. The Chancellor of the Exchequer announced in the Autumn Statement that by 2020 300,000 places would be available each year.

237.Careers education and careers guidance are two different ways for young people to learn about the world of work. Each is important and closely linked to the other. There is a pressing need for young people to be clearer about the decisions they face at an early age and the future employment options available to them as a result. Without more clarity, this overlooked majority of young people are at great risk of drifting into work and being trapped in employment at the bottom end of the labour market.

238.Young people need careers education in schools which is embedded into and fits alongside the curriculum and is informed by labour market information. At the appropriate time, they will also need professional careers guidance that is independent of schools or colleges, delivered face-to-face, helping them to choose their individual routes forward. Both forms of support are vital in preparing young people for work but they are markedly different.

239.Work experience is essential. It helps young people to develop the attributes they need to succeed in the workplace. Yet not much is available at age 14–16, and even less is available in rural areas or for students studying at lower levels. Young people are often expected to arrange their own placement, and tend to get any work experience through their informal networks. Their experience is therefore limited to what is available through those networks. This means that within the current system aspirations remain fixed. Upwards social mobility is limited.

240.We echo and endorse the findings of Ofsted and the House of Commons Education Committee. Careers advice and guidance as it stands perpetuates the inequality been academic and non-academic routes. However, good quality careers education and guidance alone will not solve the structural issues in the system.

Inspection of careers education and guidance by Ofsted

241.Ofsted is the Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills. It inspects services that care for children and young people, and services providing education and skills for learners of all ages. Inspectors will assess a school or college, and grade it on the quality of teaching, learning and assessment. The four grades are outstanding, good, requires improvement, and inadequate. Ofsted is independent and reports directly to Parliament.

242.The results of the inspections are public. A number of our witnesses agreed that Ofsted has a significant role in driving the behaviour of schools.383 Ralph Scott told us “really what schools are most concerned about is achieving results and passing Ofsted inspections. That is the real threat to them.”384 As well as wanting the best teachers, schools may try to attract the best pupils in order to achieve good results in inspection and league tables. This is more difficult with a poor Ofsted rating.

243.Ofsted considers the preparation of students for the world of work in their inspections under its new common inspection framework.385 However London Councils told us that “although monitored by Ofsted the emphasis they place on it is not great enough and therefore, it allows schools to deliver minimal [careers] information, advice and guidance.”386 Other witnesses agreed that Ofsted should place more emphasis on the quality of advice given in schools and colleges.387

244.Sir Michael Wilshaw told us that “if everything else in the school—provision, progress, outcomes and behaviour—is good, it would be very difficult to mark that school down just because careers provision was not as good as it should have been.”388 Alan Milburn said:

“If you are a head teacher and the Ofsted inspector is arriving, how high up your worry list is the quality of your careers education or, for that matter, information, advice and guidance? If one is honest, it is pretty low down. Should it be right at the top? Probably not, but if we are going to move to a world where we are asking schools increasingly to be clear about their role in the world of work and not just in the world of education, we need to move that pendulum.”389

A greater emphasis on careers education and guidance in reports on schools and colleges could encourage schools to improve their quality.

245.Ofsted inspections drive school and college behaviours. If Ofsted gave a greater emphasis on the provision of careers education in schools and colleges in its reports, the quality of career education would improve. However, we accept that while necessary, this is not a panacea. It will not be sufficient to stimulate the required changes in the system. There may be a case for Department for Education reconsidering the funding available to schools. At the end of this report, we make the recommendation that they do further work on a cost benefit analysis as a matter of high priority.

316 A female respondent to our survey, from Cambridge, aged 19–24, who attended a state-run non-selective school:

317 See written evidence from Local Government Association (SMO0011); Scottish Government (SMO0042); Centre for Vocational Education Research (SMO0081); National Foundation for Education Research (SMO0082); Prof Saul Becker and Dr Joe Sempik (SMO0137)

318 Section 29 of the Education Act 2011. Independent is defined as if it is provided other than by a teacher employed or engaged at the school, or any other person employed at the school. Impartial is defined as showing no bias towards any education or work option.

319 A statutory duty is an obligation set out in law that must be completed.

320 HL Deb, 14 June 2011, col 665

321 See written evidence from the Welsh Government (SMO0021); Ofsted (SMO0047), LGA (SMO0011); AoC (SMO0087); Leeds City Region Enterprise Partnership (SMO0049); London Councils (SMO0057); Aspire Group (SMO0007); Brokerage Citylink (SMO0035); Prospects Services (SMO0091); Northamptonshire Enterprise Partnership (SMO0094); STEMNET (SMO0109); YMCA England (SMO0085); emfec (SMO0113); Dr Michelle Stewart (SMO0005); Inclusion Trust (SMO0107); ASDAN (SMO0054); City & Guilds (SMO0073); Cascaid (SMO0061); The Sutton Trust (SMO0111); Prof Alison Fuller and Prof Lorna Unwin (SMO0010); BAE Systems (SMO0114); The Edge Foundation (SMO0024); YMCA Training (SMO0077); National Foundation for Educational Research (SMO0082); NHS Employers (SMO0105); Recruitment and Employment Confederation (SMO0075); KPMG (SMO0121); The Prince’s Trust (SMO0040); Nacro (SMO0123); Young Enterprise (SMO0122); Association of Teachers and Lecturers (SMO0084); Careers England (SMO0084); Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (SMO0043); Trades Union Congress (SMO0104); ICAEW (SMO0063); The Chartered Insurance Institute (SMO0106); Social Policy and Research Centre, Middlesex University (SMO0036); OCR (SMO0060); Matteo Calogiuri (SMO0008); Scottish Government (SMO0042)

322 Education Act 2011, section 29

323 Written evidence from Careers England (SMO0044)

324 Written evidence from The Prince’s Trust (SMO0040)

325 Written evidence from the Welsh Government (SMO0021); Ofsted (SMO0047), LGA (SMO0011); AoC (SMO0087); Leeds City Region Enterprise Partnership (SMO0049); London Councils (SMO0057); Aspire Group (SMO0007); Brokerage Citylink (SMO0035); Prospects Services (SMO0091); Northamptonshire Enterprise Partnership (SMO0094); STEMNET (SMO0109); YMCA England (SMO0085); emfec (SMO0113); Dr Michelle Stewart (SMO0005); Inclusion Trust (SMO0107); ASDAN (SMO0054); City & Guilds (SMO0073); Cascaid (SMO0061); The Sutton Trust (SMO0011); Prof Alison Fuller and Prof Lorna Unwin (SMO0010); BAE Systems (SMO0114); The Edge Foundation (SMO0024); YMCA Training (SMO0077); National Foundation for Educational Research (SMO0082); NHS Employers (SMO0105); Recruitment and Employment Confederation (SMO0075); KPMG (SMO0121); The Prince’s Trust (SMO0040); Nacro (SMO0123); Young Enterprise (SMO0122); Association of Teachers and Lecturers (SMO0084); Careers England (SMO0044); Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (SMO0043); Trades Union Congress (SMO0104); ICAEW (SMO0063); The Chartered Insurance Institute (SMO0106); Social Policy and Research Centre, Middlesex University (SMO0036); OCR (SMO0060); Matteo Calogiuri (SMO0008); Scottish Government (SMO0042)

326 Written evidence from Local Government Association (SMO0011)

327 The Careers and Enterprise Company, ‘About us’: [accessed 22 March 2016]

328 See written evidence from National Literacy Trust (SMO0014); Chartered Institute of Personnel Development (SMO0043); ICAEW (SMO0063); Federation of Small Businesses (SMO0096); Young Enterprise (SMO0122). See also Q 72 (Jack Feintuck)

329 Written evidence from the British Chambers of Commerce (SMO0103)

330 Q 62 (Neil Carberry)

331 Q 167 (Jack Feintuck)

332 Written evidence from OCR (SMO0060)

333 See written evidence from Access To The Professions (SMO0124); Hertfordshire County Council, Hertfordshire Local Enterprise Partnership, and Youth Connexions Hertfordshire (SMO0026); TQ Training (SMO0004); Young Enterprise (SMO0122)

334 Written evidence from the National Foundation for Education Research (SMO0082)

336 See Appendix 6 (Committee visit to Derby)

337 See for example written evidence from School-Home Support (SMO0148)

338 Written evidence from OCR (SMO0060)

340 Written evidence from ThinkForward (SMO0092)

341 See written evidence from the Welsh Government (SMO0021); Telford and Wrekin Council (SMO0009); AoC (SMO0087); Pret A Manger (SMO0041); Future Advice Skills Employment Ltd (SMO0028); Develop (SMO0003); Prof Alison Fuller and Prof Lorna Unwin (SMO0009); Young Women’s Trust (SMO0046); Careers South West (SMO0095); Ofsted (SMO0047); Leeds City Region Enterprise Partnership (SMO0049); ThinkForward (SMO0092); Aspire Group (SMO0007); Capp (SMO0069); CET (SMO0059); The Sutton Trust (SMO0111); City Year UK (SMO0079); Inclusion Trust (SMO0107); MiddletonMurray (SMO0013); City & Guilds (SMO0073); Cascaid (SMO0061); The Big Academy (SMO0116); The Edge Foundation (SMO0024); National Foundation for Educational Research (SMO0082); Nacro (SMO0123); Association of Teachers and Lecturers (SMO0084); Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (SMO0043); National Union of Students (SMO0080); Trades Union Congress (SMO0104); Federation of Small Businesses (SMO0096); ICAEW (SMO0063); The Chartered Insurance Institute (SMO0106); Institution of Mechanical Engineers (SMO0070); Prof Ann Hodgson and Prof Ken Spours (SMO0012); Social Policy and Research Centre, Middlesex University (SMO0036); Matteo Calogiuri (SMO0008); emfec (SMO0113); ASDAN (SMO0054); High Peak borough Council and Staffordshire Moorlands District Council (SMO0068); BAE Systems (SMO0114); Hertfordshire County Council, Hertfordshire Local Enterprise Partnership, and Youth Connexions Hertfordshire (SMO0026); Pearson Education (SMO0089); National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) and Centre for Economic and Social Inclusion (Inclusion) (SMO0078); Young Enterprise (SMO0122)

342 White British male, aged 19-24, with SEN and who attended a non-selective state school in Cambridge.

343 Q 163 (The Rt Hon Alan Milburn)

344 Education Committee, Careers guidance for young people: The impact of the new duty on schools (Seventh Report, Session 2012–13, HC 632-I)

345 Ofsted, Going in the right direction? Careers guidance in schools from September 2012, (September 2013): [accessed 22 March 2016]

346 We note that Prof Baroness Wolf and Ofsted have both drawn attention to the fact that it does mean many young people going to university might have been better off doing a vocational apprenticeship/training.

347 Q 91 (Malcolm Trobe)

348 See evidence from the Prince’s Trust (SMO0040); Herefordshire Council (SMO0020); Hertfordshire County Council, Hertfordshire Local Enterprise Partnership, and Youth Connexions Hertfordshire (SMO0026); The Found Generation (SMO0101); ThinkForward (SMO0092); NHS Employers (SMO0105); Appendix 6 (Committee Visit to Derby)

349 Written evidence from Pret A Manger (SMO0041); London Councils (SMO0057); MiddletonMurray (SMO0013); National Literacy Trust (SMO0014); Nacro (SMO0123); Young Enterprise (SMO0122); ASDAN (SMO0054); Natspec (SMO0093); The Big Academy (SMO0116); Pinetree Enterprises Ltd (SMO0015); Capp (SMO0069); Barclays PLC (SMO0115); The Science Council (SMO0120); Scottish Government (SMO0042)

350 Q 47 (Nick Chambers)

351 Written evidence from State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation, Swiss Confederation (SMO0117)

352 Written evidence from the Royal Danish Embassy (SMO0108)

353 Written evidence from New Economy (on behalf of Greater Manchester Combined Authority) (SMO0088)

354 Q 178 (Prof Ann Hodgson)

355 See Appendix 6 (Committee visit to Derby)

356 See note of focus group (Appendix 4)

357 Written evidence from The Found Generation (SMO0101); ThinkForward (SMO0092); New Meaning Ltd (SMO0031); ASDAN (SMO0054)

358 Written evidence from Prospects Services (SMO0091); Cascaid (SMO0061); Nacro (SMO0123); ASDAN (SMO0054)

359 Written evidence from Careers South West (SMO0095); YMCA England (SMO0085); Carers Trust (SMO0033)

360 A first employment outcome is the first job gained after leaving school.

361 Written evidence from Careers South West (SMO0095)

362 11 (Dr Abigail McKnight)

363 See note of focus group, 27 October 2015 (Appendix 4)

365 See Appendix 5

366 Written evidence from Hertfordshire County Council, Hertfordshire Local Enterprise Partnership, and Youth Connexions Hertfordshire (SMO0026) See also written evidence from Career Ready (SMO0074).

367 See Q 42 (Alex Burghart); Q 114 (Sir Michael Wilshaw); Q 166 (The Rt Hon Alan Milburn); written evidence from Career Ready (SMO0074); ThinkForward (SMO0092)

368 Q 35 (Prof Paul Gregg)

369 Written evidence from The Challenge (SMO0098)

370 Q 197 (Nick Boles MP)

371 Written evidence from UKCES (SMO0001) (See UKCES Stats); Develop (SMO0003); Leeds City Region Enterprise Partnership (SMO0049); London Councils (SMO0057); Brokerage Citylink (SMO0035); CET (SMO0059); HM Government (SMO0055); Inclusion Trust (SMO0107); ASDAN (SMO0054); Hertfordshire County Council, Hertfordshire Local Enterprise Partnership, and Youth Connexions Hertfordshire (SMO0026); BAE Systems (SMO0114); The Big Academy (SMO0116); YMCA Training (SMO0077); British Chambers of Commerce (SMO0103); KPMG (SMO0121); Barclays PLC (SMO0115); The Prince’s Trust (SMO0040); Association of Teachers and Lecturers (SMO0084); Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (SMO0043); New Economy (on behalf of Greater Manchester Combined Authority) (SMO0088); The Found Generation (SMO0101); Nacro (SMO0123); The Edge Foundation (SMO0024)

372 Q 198 (The Rt Hon Nicky Morgan MP)

373 Q 39 (Ralph Scott)

374 Q 34 (Prof Paul Gregg)

375 Q 12 (Moira McKerracher)

376 See written evidence from Association of Teachers and Lecturers (SMO0084); Careers England (SMO044); ICAEW (SMO0063); TQ Training (SMO0004); The Big Academy (SMO0116); Careers South West (SMO0095); YMCA England (SMO0085); Inclusion Trust (SMO0107); British Chambers of Commerce (SMO0103); Ofsted (SMO0047); Hertfordshire County Council, Hertfordshire Local Enterprise Partnership, and Youth Connexions Hertfordshire (SMO0026)

377 See written evidence from Hertfordshire County Council, Hertfordshire Local Enterprise Partnership, and Youth Connexions Hertfordshire (SMO0026); Ofsted (SMO0047); Barnardo’s Focus Group (SMO0138)

378 Q 105 (David Nicoll)

379 Q 56 (Neil Carberry)

380 Written evidence from Step Up To Serve (SMO0029); Develop (SMO0003); The Found Generation (SMO0101); City Year UK (SMO0079); Barclays PLC (SMO0115); Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (SMO0043)

381 Demos, Scouting for Skills, May 2014: [accessed 22 March 2016]

382 In 2015, 16 and 17 year-olds participated. In the Autumn Statement, the Chancellor announced that 300,000 more young people would participate in the NCS.

383 See written evidence from Pret A Manger (SMO0041); Career Ready (SMO0074); Futures Advice Skills Employment Ltd (SMO0028); Q 15 (Moira McKerracher); Q 93 (Pat Brennan-Barrett); Q 167 (The Rt Hon Alan Milburn); 187 (Nick Boles MP)

384 Q 43 (Ralph Scott)

385 Written evidence from Ofsted (SMO0040)

386 Written evidence from London Councils (SMO0057)

387 See written evidence from ICAEW (SMO0063); New Economy (on behalf of Greater Manchester Combined Authority) (SMO0088); Federation of Small Businesses (SMO0096)

388 Q 109 (Sir Michael Wilshaw)

389 Q 167 (The Rt Hon Alan Milburn)

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