Artificial Intelligence Committee
AI in the UK: ready, willing and able?

Report of Session 2017-19 - published 16 April 2017 - HL Paper 100



“As soon as it works, no one calls it AI anymore …

Chapter 1: Introducing artificial intelligence

Our inquiry

Defining artificial intelligence

Figure 1: Definitions of artificial intelligence

Box 1: Common terms used in artificial intelligence

Figure 2: Deep neural networks

Categories of artificial intelligence


Recent reports

Robotics and artificial intelligence 19

Machine learning: the power and promise of computers that learn by example 20

Data Management and Use: Governance in the 21st century 20

Growing the artificial intelligence industry in the UK 20

Industrial Strategy: Building a Britain fit for the future 20

Impact on politics

Chapter 2: Engaging with artificial intelligence

General understanding, engagement and public narratives

Everyday engagement with AI

Chapter 3: Designing artificial intelligence

Access to, and control of, data


Strengthening access and control

Box 2: Open Banking

Intelligible AI

Technical transparency


Addressing prejudice

Data monopolies

Box 3: The Competition and Markets Authority

Chapter 4: Developing artificial intelligence

Investment in AI development

Box 4: Start-ups and SMEs

Figure 3: Investment rounds

Turning academic research into commercial potential

Box 5: What is a spin-out?

Improving access to skilled AI developers

Diversity of talent

Immigration and overseas skilled workers

Maintaining innovation

Chapter 5: Working with artificial intelligence


Box 6: What is productivity?

Figure 4: UK job productivity

Box 7: Broadband speeds

Government adoption, and procurement, of artificial intelligence

Impact on the labour market

Figure 5: Percentage of working people employed in each industry group, 1901–2011

Figure 6: How worried are you that your job will be replaced by AI in the near future?

National Retraining Scheme

Chapter 6: Living with artificial intelligence

Education and artificial intelligence

Impact on social and political cohesion


Chapter 7: Healthcare and artificial intelligence

The opportunity

The value of data

Box 8: DeepMind and the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust

Box 9: Caldicott Guardians

Using AI

Chapter 8: Mitigating the risks of artificial intelligence

Legal liability

Criminal misuse of artificial intelligence and data

Autonomous weapons

Box 10: UK Government definitions of automated and autonomous systems

Box 11: Definitions of lethal autonomous weapons systems used by other countries

Chapter 9: Shaping artificial intelligence

Leading at home

The AI Council and the Government Office for AI

Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation

Box 12: The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority

A National Institute for AI

Regulation and regulators

Assessing policy outcomes

A vision for Britain in an AI world

An AI Code

Box 13: Data Protection Impact Assessments

Summary of conclusions and recommendations

Appendix 1: List of Members and declarations of interest

Appendix 2: List of witnesses

Appendix 3: Call for evidence

Appendix 4: Historic Government policy on artificial intelligence in the United Kingdom

Appendix 5: Note of Committee visit to DeepMind: Wednesday 13 September 2017

Appendix 6: Note of Committee visit to Cambridge: Thursday 16 November 2017

Appendix 7: Note of Committee visit to BBC Blue Room: Monday 20 November 2017

Appendix 8: Note of SME Roundtable Event at techUK: Thursday 7 December 2017

Appendix 9: Recommendations relevant to the Government’s new AI organisations

Appendix 10: Acronyms and glossary

Evidence is published online at and available for inspection at the Parliamentary Archives (020 7129 3074).

Q in footnotes refers to a question in oral evidence.

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