8.This chapter highlights some of the achievements of all the sessional investigative committees during 2017–18. Although House of Lords committees have not generally adopted the practice pioneered by the Scottish Parliament and several Australian legislatures of publishing “legacy reports”, the European Union Committee and the Constitution Committee separately publish detailed reports about their activity during the previous session.
9.Following the decision in the June 2016 referendum that the UK should leave the EU, much committee activity has continued to focus on the possible impact of Brexit.
10.The surge in activity heightened the risk of duplication of effort by committees or, conversely, of matters ‘falling between the cracks’. The Informal Brexit Liaison Group, established by the Liaison Committee in November 2016, continued its work in helping co-ordinate and oversee committee activity in the House relating to Brexit and keeping in touch with Brexit scrutiny being carried out in House of Commons committees. It met a further 6 times, chaired by Liaison Committee Chairman and Senior Deputy Speaker Lord McFall of Alcluith, and bringing together other House of Lords Committee chairmen. Following each meeting of the informal group a minute of the discussions is posted on the parliamentary website.
11.The Communications Committee began an inquiry into the advertising industry in September 2017. The committee investigated how the UK advertising industry, one of the most successful in the creative sector, could maintain access to global talent and nurture the skills of those already in the UK. It also considered how the industry could best adapt to the increase in digital advertising.
12.During the inquiry the committee heard from Sir Martin Sorrell, then chief executive officer of WPP, one of the world’s largest advertising and communications companies; representatives of Google and Facebook; and a range of agencies, advertisers, tech experts, broadcasters and publishers. The committee visited the offices of Saatchi & Saatchi and Framestore, an Oscar-winning visual effects specialist. It also travelled to the MediaCityUK offices of ITV in Salford and was hosted by Manchester Metropolitan University to take evidence from students, academics, and local businesses. The report UK advertising in a digital age was published in April 2018.
13.The committee received the Government response to its report A privatised future for Channel 4? In the report the committee urged the Government not to pursue plans to sell Channel 4, concluding that the risks of privatisation outweighed the benefits. In its response the Government said that it had decided not to privatise the broadcaster.
14.In October 2017 the Government responded to the committee’s report Growing up with the internet, which concluded that responsibility for protecting children online was fragmented and ineffective. Following the report the Government published its green paper Internet Safety Strategy, a consultation on online safety.
15.Building on the work of its reports on children and the internet and advertising, the committee in March 2018 launched an inquiry to consider how regulation of the internet should be improved.
16.The Constitution Committee’s work focused on the constitutional implications of leaving the European Union. It published two reports on the European Union (Withdrawal) Bill, following its earlier report The ‘Great Repeal Bill’ and delegated powers. In its interim report the committee found that the bill raised “a series of profound, wide-ranging and interlocking constitutional concerns.” The final report made detailed recommendations to address the bill’s shortcomings and give effect to the Government’s aims in ways compatible with constitutional principles. Amendments were tabled at committee stage to the European Union (Withdrawal) Bill in line with the recommendations—both by committee members and other members of the House. In response, at report stage, the Government brought forward its own amendments, accepted by the House, on these key issues. These included amendments (nos 23–25) to provide greater clarity on how UK courts should treat CJEU case law; to define the status of retained EU law in relation to its future modification; and to impose greater requirements on ministers to justify and explain their use of the regulation-making powers in the bill (amendments 83C, 83F, 83H and 83).
17.The committee published the first of four reports as part of its inquiry on the legislative process. In Preparing Legislation for Parliament it concluded that better policy preparation would result in better legislation and a stronger and more accessible legal system. It recommended making legislation more accessible for practitioners and the public, consolidation in several areas of the law and more frequent pre-legislative scrutiny. The committee published a call for evidence for the next part of its inquiry, on the passage of legislation through Parliament.
18.The committee published a follow-up report on judicial appointments, examining progress since its 2012 report. It concluded that there were challenges threatening the attractiveness of judicial careers, including on pensions, working conditions, and the state of court buildings and IT systems. The committee called for renewed efforts to improve diversity in the judiciary and access for applicants from beyond the traditional barrister career path.
19.The committee reported on six Government bills in 2017–18 and corresponded with the Government on one other. Points raised in the committee’s report on the Sanctions and Anti-Money Laundering Bill prompted Government amendments on delegated powers. Those amendments provided a model for the committee’s subsequent consideration of powers in the European Union (Withdrawal) Bill.
20.The committee held annual evidence sessions with the Minister for the Constitution and the President and Deputy President of the Supreme Court. A debate was held in the chamber on the committee’s reports on The Union and devolution and Inter-governmental relations in the United Kingdom.
21.The Economic Affairs Committee’s report on Brexit and the Labour Market was published in July 2017. The committee recommended that:
(a)The Government take urgent action to improve the collection of immigration data . The committee considered that “long-standing and widely identified” problems with the International Passenger Survey (used to calculate net migration) meant that it “cannot be relied upon to provide accurate estimates of net migration”. In their response the Government stated that the IPS “continues to be the best sources of information to measure long-term international migration”.
(b)A transition period was required for businesses to adapt to a new post- Brexit immigration policy.
(c)Strict numerical targets for net migration were potentially unhelpful for the labour market and the economy.
22.The committee launched an inquiry into the Economics of Higher, Further and Technical Education in July 2017, covering university funding, further education funding and apprenticeships. To hear the views of those directly affected the committee held focus-group discussions with university students, further-education students and apprentices. These discussions were held in Westminster but in a more informal setting than the committee taking oral evidence. The committee also hosted a roundtable with small businesses, and visited Birmingham to meet local students and employers. Feedback from participants in these events was positive. One student said “It was an amazing experience … I believe it is of high value to have encounters between people of so contrasting generations as this can help improve or sustain the conditions of the matters discussed.” In addition the committee’s Twitter account was used to publicise the inquiry and evidence. A tweet containing a clip of Martin Lewis (the founder of Money Saving Expert) explaining the student loan system was viewed over 68,000 times. The committee expects to report in June 2018.
23.The committee also held annual evidence sessions with the Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Governor of the Bank of England.
24.The moving of the Budget from spring to autumn has changed the sub-committee’s timetable. From 2018 it will meet from September and report in early November.
25.The sub-committee’s 2017 report was debated in November 2017. It examined the Government’s proposals for a mandatory digital tax regime. This would replace annual income-tax returns with digital tax accounts and require quarterly digital reporting by most businesses and private landlords. The sub-committee concluded:
26.Following the report the Government announced changes to the policy. The sub-committee’s report was debated alongside the second reading of the Finance (No. 2) Bill 2017, which implemented the revised policy. In the debate the minister said:
“The sub-committee asked that making tax digital should be implemented from 2020. We saw the benefits of allowing businesses more time to adjust and have pushed back any mandatory implementation until 2019. Even then, it will be only on VAT and only for larger businesses … The sub-committee recommended that businesses trading below the VAT threshold could not be expected to be ready to implement only a year after larger businesses and that it was unfair to subject them to an untested system. We heard that and we saw that it was right … The sub-committee raised a number of points about the scope and timetable for the programme and we have responded. It also had concerns about having time to test making tax digital … We will ensure that making tax digital is shown to work before we introduce it for taxes other than VAT.”
27.The minister concluded: “The scrutiny of the Bill that comes both from the Finance Bill Sub-Committee and in this debate is invaluable to making our tax system stronger.”
28.The European Union Committee and its six sub-committees published a total of 13 reports from the start of the 2017–19 session to the end of March 2018. This sustained the rapid work-rate of the previous session, and brought the total of Brexit-themed reports published since the 2016 referendum to 28. At the same time, the EU Committees increasingly responded to the speed of developments in the UK-EU Brexit negotiations by adopting less formal and more agile ways of engaging with Government and stakeholders. These included sending several substantial letters to the Government instead of publishing formal reports, on issues as diverse as the need for a transition deal for financial services, and the resolution of issues affecting Ireland and Northern Ireland, and conducting short inquiries, sometimes involving a single seminar-style meeting with a range of witnesses rather than a series of formal hearings spread out over a period of weeks.
29.The staff of the EU Committee and its sub-committees have used Twitter in new ways to promote the committee’s work, using threads, tweeting captioned clips of evidence sessions, incorporating animated gifs in tweets, and adding descriptions to images to improve accessibility. The EU Committee’s Twitter following almost doubled over the year, to just under 11,000.
30.The EU Select Committee continued to focus on the withdrawal negotiations. It held regular evidence sessions with the Secretary of State for Exiting the EU, Rt Hon David Davis MP, and corresponded with him on issues such as the publication of the Government’s sectoral analyses, the December UK–EU Joint Agreement, and the draft withdrawal agreement published in February 2018
31.In July 2017 and February 2018 the Committee also visited Brussels for a series of high-level meetings, taking evidence on-the-record from Michel Barnier, the EU’s Chief Negotiator on Brexit, and Guy Verhofstadt MEP, the European Parliament’s Coordinator on Brexit. The publication of such evidence contributed to the transparency of the Brexit process. The Committee also continued its dialogue with other National Parliaments, both welcoming visiting delegations to Westminster and travelling to other Member States.
32.In addition, the EU Select Committee published two full reports. The first, published in July 2017, was on Brexit: devolution. The report drew on an inquiry largely conducted during the 2016–17 session, including visits to Edinburgh and Cardiff, and meetings with the devolved institutions, though publication was delayed by the 2017 general election. The report focused in particular on the need to enhance interparliamentary dialogue between Westminster and the devolved legislatures in the context of the Brexit negotiations.
33.As a direct result of recommendations contained in this report, a new Interparliamentary Forum on Brexit met for the first time in October 2017, enabling representatives of committees scrutinising Brexit in the House of Lords, House of Commons and the devolved legislatures, to discuss issues of mutual interest and concern. The Forum met three times during the period covered by this report, twice hosted by the House of Lords under the chairmanship of the Senior Deputy Speaker, and once by the Scottish Parliament. It is expected to continue to meet.
34.In December 2017, the Committee published a report entitled Brexit: deal or no deal. The report examined the consequences of a failure to reach a deal in the Brexit negotiations, and analysed the case for a transition period to follow March 2019.
35.The Committee has also followed up earlier reports. In the first quarter of 2018 the Committee conducted a follow-up inquiry on Brexit: UK-Irish relations, hearing evidence in London, Dublin, Belfast and Derry/Londonderry. During a three-day visit to Ireland and Northern Ireland, Members visited the Irish land border and talked to local businesses and service providers. The Committee also met the Irish Tánaiste (Deputy Prime Minister), Simon Coveney TD; representatives of the DUP and Sinn Féin; Irish parliamentarians; the Chief Constable of the Police Service of Northern Ireland; representatives of the farming, energy and healthcare sectors; academic and economic experts; and local authority representatives. Given the pace at which events were unfolding, at the end of its inquiry in February the Committee decided not to publish a formal report, but sent a detailed letter to the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, setting out its continuing concerns about the impact of Brexit on Ireland/Northern Ireland.
36.The Committee also visited Gibraltar in March 2018, by way of follow-up to its March 2017 report on Brexit: Gibraltar, and in July 2017 took evidence from a number of Premiers and Chief Ministers of the British Overseas Territories.
37.The Energy and Environment Sub-Committee published two reports, on Brexit: farm animal welfare and Brexit: energy security. A third, looking at the potential impact of Brexit on the price and availability of food for UK consumers, was published in May 2018.
38.The Sub-Committee adopted a new approach to evidence during the farm animal welfare inquiry. The sub-committee discussed the issues with 14 experts in the field during one roundtable discussion, with stakeholders and Members participating jointly, rather than taking formal evidence from a series of witness panels. This was not only time efficient, but stimulated greater debate between Members and witnesses. The Sub-Committee has adopted the same approach for its inquiry on food, and in conducting a one-off session looking at the impact of Brexit on the UK’s trade in waste.
39.The Sub-Committee sought to develop lines of communication with committees in the House of Commons and in the devolved legislatures with an interest in the impact of Brexit on energy and the environment. The Chair met the Convener of the Scottish Parliament’s Environment, Climate Change and Land Reform Committee and attended meetings of the House of Commons Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and Environmental Audit committees, while Chairs of the latter two committees also attended Sub-Committee meetings. Further engagement of this kind is planned.
40.The Sub-Committee’s report on Brexit: environment and climate change, published in February 2017, focused on the need to fill the environmental ‘governance gap’ that will be created when the UK leaves the EU’s regulatory regime. The Secretary of State, Rt Hon Michael Gove MP, addressed this issue when he appeared before the Sub-Committee on 1 November 2017, signalling the Government’s acceptance of this key long-term recommendation. Tweets of the session, including video clips, achieved exceptionally high levels of engagement.
41.In July 2017, the External Affairs Sub-Committee published a report on Operation Sophia, the EU’s naval mission to tackle irregular migration across the Mediterranean, revisiting its 2016 report on Operation Sophia, and concluding that the operation had failed. The report received significant media coverage, including on the front page of The Times.
42.The Sub-Committee also undertook an inquiry into sanctions policy co-operation with the EU after Brexit. The report, published in December 2017, concluded that the effectiveness of UK sanctions would be undermined unless the UK can quickly agree arrangements for future sanctions policy co- operation with the EU. The Government responded to the report on 8 February, and agreed with many of the conclusions, including the Committee’s central recommendation that the Government should propose a UK-EU political forum, for regular discussion and co-ordination of sanctions policy. On 24 May the Government duly proposed the establishment of a UK-EU sanctions dialogue, in a technical note on consultation and cooperation on external security.
43.The Sub-Committee launched an inquiry into co-operation on Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) missions after Brexit in early 2018. The inquiry considered the importance of CSDP missions to the UK’s foreign policy goals, and the frameworks through which the UK might participate after Brexit. The report was published in May.
44.The Chair of the External Affairs Sub-Committee, with two members of the International Relations Committee, represented the House at the Joint meeting of the parliamentary committees on the Lancaster House Treaties in Paris in February 2018. The meeting was hosted by the Assemblée Nationale, and also attended by the Sénat and the House of Commons.
45.The EU Financial Affairs Sub-Committee published a report on Brexit: the future of financial regulation and supervision on 27 January 2018. The Sub- Committee called for both sides in the negotiations to recognise the risks involved in fragmenting financial markets post-Brexit and for an agreement allowing mutual market access. The Government response was received on 26 March.
46.As well as producing a report, the Sub-Committee wrote to the Chancellor partway through the inquiry, on 8 November 2017, emphasising the need urgently to secure a transition period, to safeguard the UK’s financial services sector. The Sub-Committee subsequently arranged a series of private meetings with industry and regulators, to explore further how firms are planning for Brexit.
47.The EU Home Affairs Sub-Committee has published three reports since the General Election, on Brexit: the EU data protection package, Brexit: judicial oversight of the European Arrest Warrant and Brexit: reciprocal healthcare. The data protection report was debated in the House alongside the second reading of the Data Protection Bill. This debate highlighted a potential gap in the House’s procedures whereby the EU Committee has no remit to consider domestic legislation, notwithstanding the fact that several speakers in the debate invited the Sub-Committee to contribute further to scrutiny of the Data Protection Bill. The arrangements for the scrutiny of legislation implementing EU obligations remain a live concern, particularly in the context of the delegated powers created by the European Union (Withdrawal) Bill.
48.The Sub-Committee recently finished taking evidence on the impact of Brexit on the movement of people in the fields of sport and culture, following up on its March 2017 report on Brexit: UK-EU movement of people.
49.The EU Internal Market Sub-Committee published its report, Brexit: competition and State aid, on 2 February 2018. The Sub-Committee concluded that Brexit would not necessitate a fundamental revision of the UK’s well-established domestic competition framework, but that the UK would have significant decisions to make over future State aid policy.
50.The Sub-Committee also held a series of evidence sessions following up its March 2017 report on Brexit: trade in non-financial services. The Sub- Committee met witnesses from the aviation, professional business services, digital, education and tourism-related travel, and creative sectors. The evidence received will be summarised in a portmanteau update letter to the Government.
51.Like other Sub-Committees, the Internal Market Sub-Committee has sought to adopt a more flexible approach to taking evidence by holding roundtable-style discussions. On 15 March 2018 the Sub-Committee held such a session with 10 stakeholders, including academic researchers and business leaders, to discuss the implications of Brexit for the UK’s space industry. This was followed by a visit to the UK’s ‘space cluster’ at Harwell, Oxfordshire on 29 March. A central theme in the Sub-Committee’s work was the EU-funded satellite system, Galileo, to which the UK has been a leading contributor, with British companies having built all existing Galileo spacecraft. As the Sub-Committee was undertaking its short inquiry, the European Commission’s decision to restrict UK access to EU space projects with security implications (including Galileo) was made public, and continues to receive considerable media attention.
52.The EU Justice Sub-Committee’s report on Brexit: Will consumers be protected? promoted the need for continued engagement with EU level consumer protection cooperation. However, most of the Sub-Committee’s time was devoted to follow-up inquiries. For instance, the Sub-Committee continued to pursue issues raised in its 2017 report on the legality of the EU sanctions listing process, in particular re-listing (the process whereby the Council of the European Union, in cases where a sanctions listing has been struck down by the General Court of the EU, frequently re-lists the individual or organisation, on the basis of amended reasons). This prompted the Government to publish statistics about the scale of re-listing.
53.In the course of a short follow-up inquiry on Brexit: acquired rights the Sub- Committee secured important commitments from the then Immigration Minister about EU nationals applying to remain in the UK, including that they would be able to register for settled status via a simple app, and that the process would begin in late 2018, ahead of the UK’s withdrawal in March 2019. The Sub-Committee’s work on citizens’ rights was welcomed, including on social media, by groups representing UK citizens living in other EU countries (e.g. British in Europe) and citizens from other EU countries living in the UK (e.g. the3million). However, a lack of progress in recent months has led the Sub-Committee to convene a meeting with the Home Secretary, which will take place in June 2018, at which Members will seek an update on the status of EU citizens resident in the UK.
54.The Sub-Committee has also engaged fully in scrutiny, challenging the Government’s opposition to requiring political parties to publish data about the number of female candidates at European Parliament elections. Although the Government has maintained its opposition (and the UK will not now participate in the 2019 European Parliament elections), the Sub-Committee continues to work with other parliamentary committees (including the Commons Women and Equalities Committee) to promote the issue of gender representation.
55.The International Relations Committee published its report The Middle East: Time for New Realism in May 2017. The report called for the Government to ensure its approach to the region was sustained, consistent and based on updated understanding of the region. One conclusion that drew substantial press attention was that the UK might need to rely less on US leadership in the region and form closer working relationships with other third countries, such as China. Events in the region since the report was published, not least the US’s decision to move its embassy in Israel, have arguably demonstrated the validity of the committee’s conclusion. The committee continued to pursue this point in a one-off session with the Minister for the Middle East and as part of its current inquiry (please see below). The committee hosted a seminar with academics, diplomats and other interested guests to discuss the report’s conclusions. The committee has had ongoing correspondence with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office on topics raised in the report—for example urging the Foreign Secretary to continue firmly to support the Iran nuclear deal and to put pressure on Saudi Arabia to relieve the blockade to humanitarian aid in Yemen.
56.In January 2018 the committee reported on The UK and the future of the Western Balkans. It concluded that the UK had a responsibility to remain engaged in the Western Balkans and that it was in the national interest to do so. The committee said the Government should continue to support the integration of Western Balkan countries with the EU as their most reliable path towards stability and prosperity. Engagement in the Western Balkans would be an opportunity for the UK to demonstrate that although the UK was leaving the EU, it was not leaving Europe. During the inquiry, as with its Middle East inquiry, the committee held a private roundtable session with young people from the region, which allowed the committee to hear valuable different perspectives. The report received substantial press attention in the region; to facilitate this, translations of parts of the report were provided. The committee also promoted the report with a roundtable with invited guests and a seminar hosted by the Global Strategy Forum.
57.In January 2018 the committee launched a substantial inquiry into UK foreign policy in changed world conditions. This inquiry is covering radical changes in international relations, including the transformative effect of digital technologies, potentially significant changes in the US’s approach to global affairs, the rise of China as a global power and the disruptive effect of Russia’s foreign activity.
58.In February 2018 the committee held a one-off evidence session in advance of the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting held in London in April 2018. Following this the committee published a short report on priorities for the summit, which was debated in the House in March 2018. The summit’s priorities were: enhancing trade and investment within the Commonwealth; focusing on climate change and improving resilience to natural disasters; addressing the threats of organised crime, cyber crime, violent extremism and human trafficking; and promoting the Commonwealth Charter principles of democracy, good governance, human rights and the rule of law. This was the committee’s first such session on significant forthcoming international meetings. The committee plans to hold sessions ahead of the NATO summit in July 2018 and the UN General Assembly in September 2018.
59.The Science and Technology Committee continues to engage a wider audience through Twitter, with 58,200 followers as at 5 June 2018. The Committee spent most of the year inquiring into Life Sciences and the Industrial Strategy. This comprised a report by Sir John Bell on the Life Sciences Industrial Strategy and the Life Sciences Sector Deal—together they formed the first sector strategy published as part of the Government’s Industrial Strategy. The strategy proposes continuing support for science in the UK; encouraging the growth and competitiveness of the life sciences sector; enabling better collaboration between the sector, research institutions and the NHS; making best use of healthcare data; and improving the skills base of the sector. The committee received over 130 pieces of written evidence and took oral evidence from October 2017 to March 2018, including at the Francis Crick Institute (where new facilities were successfully trialled for live webcasting of evidence heard away from Westminster). The committee’s main focus was on implementation and oversight of the Government’s Life Sciences Industrial Strategy; the role the NHS should play in delivering it; and the action needed to improve the UK’s performance at growing small and medium-sized life sciences firms into larger companies. The report was published on 26 April 2018 with a press conference launching it at the Science Media Centre.
60.The Government response to the committee’s report, Nuclear research and technology: Breaking the cycle of indecision was received in September 2017. The report recommended that “for the UK to be active across the main areas of nuclear R&D … it needs to make significant investments”. Following this, in its Clean Growth Strategy (October 2017) the Government announced £460 million to support work in areas including future nuclear manufacturing techniques, recycling and reprocessing, and advanced reactor design. The committee also recommended that the UK should rejoin the Generation IV International Forum as a full member, which the minister responding to the debate on the report announced would happen in 2018.
61.The committee also received the Government response to the report Connected and Autonomous Vehicles: The future? in October 2017.
2 Previous highlights reports have covered typical one-year sessions. Given the current two-year session, we have decided to report mid-way through the session, focusing on activity from the start of the session in June 2017 to spring 2018.
3 A legacy report looks back at the operation of a committee or committees at the end of a parliamentary session and makes observations and recommendations for the future.
4 Communications Committee, (1st Report, Session 2017–18,
HL Paper 116)
5 Communications Committee, (1st Report, Session 2016–17,
HL Paper 17)
6 Communications Committee, (2nd Report, Session 2016–17,
HL Paper 130)
7 Constitution Committee, (9th Report, Session 2016–17, HL Paper 123)
8 Constitution Committee, (3rd Report, Session 2017–19, HL Paper 19)
9 Constitution Committee, (9th Report, Session 2017–19,
HL Paper 69)
10 Constitution Committee, (4th Report, Session 2017–19, HL Paper 27)
11 Constitution Committee, (7th Report, Session 2017–19, HL Paper 32)
12 Reports on: ; (2nd Report, Session 2017–19, HL Paper 18);, (6th Report, Session 2017–19, HL Paper 31); , (8th Report, Session 2017–19, HL Paper 39); , (9th Report, Session 2017–19, HL Paper 90); Letter from Baroness Taylor of Bolton on the Telecommunications Infrastructure (Relief from Non-Domestic Rates) Bill, 6 November 2017: ; Letter from Baroness Taylor of Bolton on the Telecommunications Infrastructure (Relief from Non-Domestic Rates) Bill, 8 December 2017:
13 Oral evidence taken before the Constitution Committee, 14 March 2018 (Session 2017–19), (Chloe Smith MP, Parliamentary Secretary (Minister for the Constitution), Cabinet Office)
14 Oral evidence taken before the Constitution Committee, 21 March 2018 (Session 2017–19), (Rt Hon Baroness Hale of Richmond, President, and Lord Mance, Deputy President, Supreme Court)
15 HL Deb, 9 October 2017, and
16 Constitution Committee, (10th Report, Session 2015–16, HL Paper 149)
17 Constitution Committee, (11th Report, Session 2014–15, HL Paper 146)
18 Economic Affairs Committee, (1st Report, Session 2017–19,
HL Paper 11)
20 Letter from Rt Hon Brandon Lewis MP to the Rt Hon. Lord Forsyth of Drumlean, 1 November 2017:
21 Feedback provided by students to the Education and Participation team
22 Economic Affairs Committee (@LordsEconComm), 9 January 2018, Student Loans or a graduate contribution system? [accessed March 2018]
23 Oral evidence taken before the Economic Affairs Committee, 14 September 2017 (Session 2017–19), (Rt Hon Philip Hammond MP); and oral evidence taken before the Economic Affairs Committee, 30 January 2018, (Session 2017–19), (Dr Mark Carney)
24 Economic Affairs Committee, (3rd Report, Session 2016–17, HL Paper 137)
25 Jane Ellison MP to Lord Hollick, 26 April 2017: [accessed May 2017]; HC Deb, 13 July 2017 , ; and HMRC ‘Draft Income Tax Notice: Retail Sales, Update Information, End of Period Information and Partnership Information’, 13 September 2017: [accessed March 2018]
26 HL Deb, 15 November 2017,
27 HL Deb, 15 November 2017,
28 European Union Committee, (4th Report, Session 2017–19, HL Paper 9)
29 European Union Committee, (7th Report, Session 2017–19, HL Paper 46)
30 Provision for a transition period, lasting until the end of 2020, was subsequently included in the draft Withdrawal Agreement, published by the European Commission on 28 February 2018.
31 Letter from Lord Boswell of Aynho to Rt Hon Karen Bradley MP, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, 27 February 2018:
32 European Union Committee, (5th Report, Session 2017–19, HL Paper 15) and (10th Report, Session 2017–19, HL Paper 63)
33 European Union Committee, (14th Report, Session 2017–19,
HL Paper 129)
34 European Union Committee, (2nd Report, Session 2017–19,
HL Paper 5)
35 European Union Committee, (8th Report, Session 2017–19, HL Paper 50)
36 European Union Committee, (11th Report, Session 2017–19, HL Paper 66)
37 European Union Committee, (3rd Report, Session 2017–19,
HL Paper 7); (6th Report, Session 2017–19,
HL Paper 16) and (13th Report, Session 2017–19, HL Paper 107)
38 European Union Committee, (12th Report, Session 2017–19,
HL Paper 67)
39 European Union Committee, (9th Report, Session 2017–19,
HL Paper 51)
40 European Union Committee, (11th Report Session 2016–17, HL Paper 102)
41 Science and Technology Committee, (3rd Report, Session 2016–17, HL Paper 160)
42 Ibid., para 37
44 HL Deb, 17 October 2017,
45 Science and Technology Committee, (2nd Report, Session 2016–17, HL Paper 115)