European Union Committee
Beyond Brexit: food, environment, energy and health

22nd Report of Session 2019-21 - published 23 March 2021 - HL Paper 247



Chapter 1: Introduction

The story so far

This inquiry

Chapter 2: Food and agricultural produce trade

Background and context

The Trade and Cooperation Agreement

Making the agreement work with the EU

Trade Specialised Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures

Future regulatory divergence

GB-EU trade: preparing to export

Listing and equivalence

A marked increase in paperwork and preparation required

Veterinary capacity

GB-EU trade: in the truck and at the border

Haulage challenges

Delays at the border and inconsistent application of rules

Northern Ireland

Chapter 3: Fishing

Background and context

The Trade and Cooperation Agreement

Fishing access and quota

6–12 mile zone

End of the adjustment period

Quota swaps

Fish exports

Cooperation with the EU

Specialised Committee on Fisheries and parliamentary oversight

Chapter 4: Environment and climate change

Background and context

The Trade and Cooperation Agreement

Climate change


Domestic environmental enforcement, and cooperation on enforcement

Box 1: Office for Environmental Protection (OEP)

Rebalancing measures

Chapter 5: Energy and carbon pricing

Background and context

Box 2: Cross-border electricity trading

Box 3: EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS)

The Trade and Cooperation Agreement

Overarching reaction

Termination of the energy Title

Cross-border electricity and gas trading

Initial effects

New day-ahead electricity trading arrangements

Trading electricity cross-border at other market timeframes

Linking emissions trading systems

Cooperation on renewable energy in the North Sea

Box 4: North Seas Energy Cooperation initiative

Chapter 6: Chemical regulation

Background and context

Box 5: The Regulation concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH)

The Trade and Cooperation Agreement


Institutional data sharing

Chapter 7: Healthcare

Background and context

Box 6: The European Health Insurance Card (EHIC)

The Trade and Cooperation Agreement

Reciprocal healthcare

Regulatory issues and trade implications

Supply of medicines to Northern Ireland

Box 7: The Falsified Medicines Directive (FMD)

Information sharing and research

Early Warning and Response System


Data adequacy


Summary of conclusions and recommendations

Appendix 1: List of Members and declarations of interest

Appendix 2: List of witnesses

Appendix 3: Glossary

Evidence is published online at and available for inspection at the Parliamentary Archives (020 7219 3074).

Q in footnotes refers to a question in oral evidence.

© Parliamentary copyright 2021