1st Report of Session 2019-21 - published 15 January 2021 - HL Paper 183



Chapter 1: Introduction


Our inquiry

Structure of this report

COVID-19 pandemic

Chapter 2: Trends and challenges

Demography of ageing

Figure 1: Expected percentage change in population by age group (2018 to 2035)

Figure 2: Projected UK population by age group (based on 2018 data)

Life expectancy and mortality

Figure 3: Annual change in life expectancy at birth in weeks, for males and females in the UK, between the periods 2002–04 and 2017–19

Figure 4: Life expectancy for males and females in England by national deciles of area deprivation

Table 1: Leading causes of death in 2017 for males and females in England

Healthy life expectancy

Figure 5: Change in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy between 2009–11 and 2016–18, for males and females, in the UK

Figure 6: Life expectancy and healthy life expectancy of males
and females in the UK, by national deciles of area deprivation 2016–18

International comparisons

Figure 7: Life expectancy at birth for males and females in EU countries, 2017

Age-related diseases



Figure 8: Estimated percentage of people in England with 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4+ conditions, 2014

Figure 9: Trends in emergency hospital admissions in England by number of conditions, compared with 2006–07 baseline

Figure 10: Common conditions and the average number of additional conditions, 2014

Coordination of healthcare for older people


NHS Long Term Plan

Chapter 3: The science of ageing

Why do humans age?

Measuring biological ageing

Biological processes underlying ageing

Genomic instability

Deregulated nutrient sensing pathways

Cellular senescence

Telomere attrition

Epigenetic alterations

Gaps in knowledge

Potential treatments targeting ageing processes

Drugs targeting nutrient pathways

Senolytics and senomodifiers


Role of repurposed drugs

Challenges facing treatments targeting ageing processes

Clinical trials

Targeting and administration of drugs

Prioritisation of biomedical research into the ageing process

The UK’s position

Contribution of biomedical research to the Ageing Society Grand Challenge

Chapter 4: Lifestyle and environmental influences on healthy ageing

Sources of evidence

Influences on health outcomes

Lifestyle and behavioural factors

Environmental factors and local situations

Health inequalities

Evidence base for lifestyle risk factors

Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption

Diet, nutrition and obesity

Physical activity and inactivity

Cognitive function and psychological stress

Public health interventions

Integrated messages and a life-course approach

Motivations for, and barriers to, behaviour change

Responsibility for public health in England

Chapter 5: Technology and services

Independent living

Housing and the built environment

Alerts and digital services

Data-driven services, robotics and artificial intelligence

Health monitoring and telemedicine

Wearable and implantable medical devices

Non-medical products

Reducing social isolation and loneliness

Use of data for healthy ageing

Barriers to uptake of technology and services

Design and targeting

Trust and privacy


Digital literacy

Support for innovation and deployment

Funding for technologies and services

Feasibility of the Ageing Society Grand Challenge mission

Chapter 6: The Ageing Society Grand Challenge

Feasibility of achieving the Ageing Society Grand Challenge mission

The five-year target

Inequalities in healthy ageing

Monitoring progress towards the mission

Responsibility and strategy for Ageing Society Grand Challenge mission

Box 1: Initiatives associated with the Ageing Society Grand Challenge, as of 10 October 2020

Post-script: COVID-19 pandemic

Vulnerability of older people

Wider health impacts of the pandemic

Changes to health and care services

Summary of conclusions and recommendations

Appendix 1: List of Members and declarations of interest

Appendix 2: List of witnesses

Appendix 3: Call for evidence

Evidence is published online at https://committees.parliament.uk/work/1/ageing-science-technology-and-healthy-living/ and available for inspection at the Parliamentary Archives (020 7219 3074).

Q in footnotes refers to a question in oral evidence.

The prefixes INQ and ZIN refer to items of written evidence. The prefixes are interchangeable and the same evidence will be found under each number in both series.

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