Science and Technology Committee
Nature-based solutions: rhetoric or reality? - The potential contribution of nature-based solutions to net zero in the UK

2nd Report of Session 2021-22 - published 27 January 2022 - HL Paper 147


Chapter 1: Introduction


Our inquiry

Structure of the report

Chapter 2: Nature-based solutions in the UK

The state of the UK’s natural environment

Key environments in the UK

Figure 1: Carbon storage by habitat

Figure 2: Greenhouse gas emission rate by habitat


Figure 3: The scale of the contribution of forestry to net zero by 2050

Figure 4: The contribution of land-based nature-based solutions to mitigating ‘hard to mitigate emissions’ by 2050

Figure 5: Carbon sequestration over time for the main UK tree species


Figure 6: Peatland area breakdown by peatland category

Figure 7: Greenhouse gas emissions breakdown by peatland category

Agricultural lands and grasslands


Marine environments

Table 1: Estimates for sequestration and storage of CO2e across different marine habitats, UK-wide


Need for further research

Other conclusions and recommendations

Chapter 3: Supporting nature-based solutions at scale in the UK

Turning pledges for nature into plans

Table 2: Government pledges related to nature-based solutions

Public delivery bodies

Relevant policies

Table 3: Government policies to support nature-based solutions

Barriers to adoption of nature-based solutions

Transition to Environmental Land Management schemes

Box 1: Local Nature Recovery Strategies

Knowledge and skills


Supply chains

Private finance for nature-based solutions

Woodland Carbon Code and Peatland Code

Co-benefits and the codes

Practices funded by the codes

Net zero and private finance

The need for well-regulated environmental markets

Other concerns


An overall land-use strategy?

Risk of failed transition

Summary of conclusions and recommendations

Appendix 1: List of members and declarations of interest

Appendix 2: List of witnesses

Appendix 3: Call for evidence

Appendix 4: Technical terms and organisations

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Q in footnotes refers to a question in oral evidence.

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