European Affairs Committee
The future UK-EU relationship

4th Report of Session 2022-23 - published 29 April 2023 - HL Paper 184



Chapter 1: Introduction

Our inquiry

This report

Chapter 2: The political, diplomatic and institutional relationship

The overall political relationship

The impact of the impasse over the Protocol on Ireland/Northern Ireland

Other factors affecting the political relationship in 2021 and 2022

The beginnings of a thaw?

Future challenges

Conclusions and recommendations

The institutional framework

The operation of the institutional framework to date

Table 1: Meetings of institutions established under the Withdrawal Agreement

Table 2: Meetings of institutions established under the Trade and Cooperation Agreement

The role of the devolved institutions

The potential for UK-EU summits

Parliamentary Partnership Assembly

Civil society institutions

Conclusions and recommendations

The European Political Community

The EPC and UK-EU relations

Box 1: The European Political Community

The future of the EPC

Conclusions and recommendations

Arrangements in Whitehall for handling UK-EU relations

Assessments of post-Brexit arrangements

Conclusions and recommendations

Chapter 3: The foreign policy, defence and security relationship

Box 2: Integrated Review Refresh 2023

UK-EU cooperation in the context of Russian invasion of Ukraine

Cooperation on Russian sanctions

Conclusions and recommendations

UK-EU defence cooperation


Box 3: Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO)

European Defence Fund and the European Defence Agency

Box 4: European Defence Fund and the European Defence Agency

The UK’s approach to the NATO-EU relationship

Conclusions and recommendations

A structured cooperation framework for foreign and security policy?

Bilateral and mini-lateral formats

Conclusions and recommendations

Chapter 4: Energy security and climate change

Energy security

Cooperation following the Russian invasion of Ukraine

Figure 1: Map of electricity interconnectors for England, Wales and Northern Ireland

Possible future challenges

Building future energy security resilience

Figure 2: Energy mixes of EU Member States

Conclusions and recommendations

Implementation of the TCA’s energy Title (Title VIII)

North Seas Energy Cooperation

Box 5: North Seas Energy Cooperation

Conclusions and recommendations

Emissions trading schemes

Linking the UK ETS and the EU ETS

Conclusions and recommendations

The implications for the UK of the EU’s proposal for a Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM)

Box 6: Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanisms

Conclusions and recommendations

Chapter 5: Mobility of people

Business and professional mobility

Inward mobility

Outward mobility

Movement of creative professionals

Conclusions and recommendations

School visits

Post-Brexit decline

Proposed solutions

Conclusions and recommendations

Higher education

Post-Brexit trends in student mobility

Student exchanges

Box 7: The Taith programme

UK association to Horizon Europe

Conclusions and recommendations

The case for a UK-EU youth mobility partnership

Proposals from witnesses

Existing precedents

Table 3: International examples of youth mobility arrangements

Conclusions and recommendations

Summary of conclusions and recommendations

Appendix 1: List of Members and declarations of interest

Appendix 2: List of witnesses

Appendix 3: Call for evidence

Appendix 4: Glossary of acronyms

Evidence is published online at and available for inspection at the Parliamentary Archives (020 7219 3074).

Q in footnotes refers to a question in oral evidence.

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