Fraud Act 2006 and Digital Fraud Committee
Fighting Fraud: Breaking the Chain

Report of Session 2022-23 - published 12 November 2022 - HL Paper 87


Executive summary

Chapter 1: Background

Our inquiry

The scale of fraud in the UK

Why has digital fraud increased?

The UK’s position as an English language hub

Digitisation and the rise of online services


The emergence of cryptoassets

The business model of digital fraud

Who is responsible for the response to fraud?

Legislative background

Chapter 2: The inbound route

Phishing and smishing

Action to tackle phishing and smishing

Romance fraud

Action to tackle romance fraud

Fraudulent advertising

Action to tackle fraudulent advertising

The Online Safety Bill

Analogue fraud

Chapter 3: Interaction

Number spoofing

Action to tackle spoof calls

Social engineering

Action to tackle social engineering

Fraudulent websites

Action to tackle fraudulent domains

Chapter 4: Cashing out

Payments infrastructure


Transaction monitoring

Enforcement of the AML regime

Faster Payments

Action to tackle fraud at the payment stage


Action to regulate cryptoassets

Money mules

Action to tackle money muling

Chapter 5: The Government response to fraud

The Government’s multi-agency approach

Law enforcement


The Crown Prosecution Service

Civil proceedings

Responding to victims of fraud

The impact of fraud


Consumer awareness campaigns

Chapter 6: The Fraud Act 2006 and the legislative framework

The Fraud Act 2006

The Computer Misuse Act 1990

Identity theft

The Data Protection Act 2018 and GDPR

The Telecommunications (Security) Act 2021

Corporate criminal liability

Failure to prevent offences

Regulatory options

The Online Safety Bill

Fraudulent advertising

Platform categorisation

Intermediary platforms

The role of the regulators

Identity verification

Use of fines

Summary of conclusions and recommendations

Appendix 1: List of Members and declarations of interest

Appendix 2: List of witnesses

Appendix 3: Call for evidence

Appendix 4: Telecommunications fraud sector charter

Appendix 5: Glossary and abbreviations

Evidence is published online at and available for inspection at the Parliamentary Archives (020 7219 3074).

Q in footnotes refers to a question in oral evidence.

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