Communications and Digital Committee
Large language models and generative AI

1st Report of Session 2023-24 - published 2 February 2024 - HL Paper 54


Executive summary

Chapter 1: The Goldilocks problem

Our inquiry

The challenge

Chapter 2: Future trends

What is a large language model?

Box 1: Key terms

Figure 1: Sample of LLM capabilities and example products

Figure 2: Building, releasing and using a large language model

Figure 3: The scale of open and closed model release

Figure 4: Level of vertical integration in model development and deployment


Chapter 3: Open or closed?

Open and closed models

Figure 5: The structure of UK’s AI ecosystem

Regulatory capture

Conflicts of interest

Chapter 4: A pro-innovation strategy?

Benefiting organisations

Benefitting society

Benefitting workers

Figure 6: The impact of technology on job creation

Figure 7: Labour exposure to automation by field

Government strategy and evolving priorities

Removing barriers to UK advantage

Figure 8: Affiliation of research teams building notable AI systems

The case for sovereign capabilities

Chapter 5: Risk

What are we talking about?

Table 1: Risk categories

Threat models

Near-term security risks


Catastrophic risk


Uncontrollable proliferation

Existential risk

Societal risks

Bias and discrimination

Data protection

Chapter 6: International context and lessons

International context

Lessons for regulation

Chapter 7: Making the White Paper work

Where are the central functions?

Table 2: Indicative staffing overview

Do the regulators have what it takes?


High-risk high-impact testing

Accredited standards and auditing practices

Figure 9: Key actors in the AI assurance ecosystem

Chapter 8: Copyright

Background on data mining

Using rightsholder data

Legal compliance

Technical complexity

Reviewing the Government’s position

Ways forward

Better licensing options

New powers to assert rights

Summary of conclusions and recommendations

Appendix 1: List of Members and declarations of interest

Appendix 2: List of witnesses

Appendix 3: Call for evidence

Appendix 4: Visits

Evidence is published online at and available for inspection at the Parliamentary Archives (020 7219 3074).

Q in footnotes refers to a question in oral evidence.

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