EV strategy: rapid recharge needed Contents

Chapter 4: EV charging

128.Insufficient access to reliable charging is one of the main barriers to drivers considering an EV. 56 per cent of What Car? readers surveyed cited the chargepoint network as a reason for not going electric254; those surveyed by Zouk Capital named limited range and the challenges of charging away from home as the two worst aspects of the EV experience.255 Without a reliable and well-distributed network, range anxiety and charge anxiety will persist.256 James Taylor, Managing Director at Vauxhall Motors, described charge anxiety as “the biggest barrier to consumer demand today.”257

129.While the total number of public chargepoints is increasing, we heard concerns that this is not keeping pace with the number of EVs projected to be on the road in future, and in some areas with those already on the road.258 Witnesses stressed that greater focus is needed on both the geographical distribution of chargepoints and the provision of an appropriate range of chargepoint types at different locations.259 We also heard concern that charging infrastructure is not being equitably distributed across regions and socioeconomic groups.260 As the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) noted, “no socioeconomic groups or communities … should be disadvantaged or left behind” in the transition.261

Targets, Government action and progress

130.The Government’s March 2022 Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Strategy identified the charging infrastructure as “the single biggest challenge” of the EV transition.262 The Government’s ambition is for there to be at least 300,000 public chargepoints by 2030.263

131.The Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (OZEV) stated that the Government’s aim is for the majority of public chargepoints to be delivered by the private sector.264 In November 2020, then Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced £1.3 billion in funding to accelerate the chargepoint rollout in line with the 2030 targets.265 Ian Johnston, Chair of charging industry trade association Charge UK, told us that the private sector has committed over £6 billion of investment in charging infrastructure to date.266

132.We heard evidence that the UK is broadly on track to achieve its target of 300,000 working chargepoints by 2030.267 Anthony Browne MP, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State in the Department for Transport, told the Committee in November 2023 that the number of public chargepoints installed had reached 50,000.268 According to Transport & Environment UK and Energy UK, the UK’s charging network expanded at an average growth rate of 35 per cent between 2020 and 2023.269 If this rate is maintained, the UK will meet its target by 2030.270

133.Nevertheless, we heard concerns that 300,000 chargepoints may be insufficient, and that the current trajectory may not deliver success. SMMT told us that the ratio of cars to chargepoints has been worsening every year for the last 4 years for both slow and rapid infrastructure.271 In 2021, SMMT stated that at least 2.3 million charging points would be needed nationwide by 2030.272 By comparison, we heard that the Netherlands aims to reach 1.7 million chargepoints by 2030, and has already reached 500,000.273 While the Government’s own Strategy set an advisory target of 300,000, it noted that up to 700,000 could be necessary.274

134.A lack of confidence in the charging infrastructure is commonly cited as the most or second most significant obstacle for consumers alongside the upfront cost of EVs. Infrastructure must be rolled out ahead of demand to give consumers the confidence to make the switch to EVs, but the UK’s chargepoint infrastructure is lagging behind need, and is contributing to consumer anxiety. The Government’s target is an advisory ambition, and we are concerned there is currently an insufficient sense of urgency to meet the scale of the challenge.

Regional, urban and rural distribution

135.Figure 6, based on SMMT analysis of Department for Transport (DfT) data, indicates the ratio of EVs to public chargepoints across the UK as of 2022:

Figure 6: Change in ratio of cars to public chargepoints across the UK 2019–2022

Map of UK regins showing the changing ratio of public chargepoints from 2019-2022

Source: Written evidence from SMMT (ELV0117)

136.The figure shows that the ratio of chargepoints to EVs worsened over the period 2019–2022 in every region across the UK. The worsening ratio of public chargepoints to EV numbers is most pronounced in Northern Ireland, the South West, the South East and the North West where the ratio of chargepoints to EV ownership numbers is more than 100:1.275 Electrifying.com told us that there are more public chargers in Westminster than there are in Liverpool, Leeds and Manchester combined.276

137.We heard particular concern about charging in rural areas. While rural residents may often have more space to install their own home chargepoints, we heard that a significant minority of rural residents, for example in historic villages, have limited off-street parking and thus must rely on public charging infrastructure.277 The Competition and Markets Authority identified risks “that rural areas may be left behind with too few chargepoints due to lack of investment.”278 Several submissions noted that lower relative demand for chargepoints makes the commercial case for installation in rural areas more challenging.279

138.However, Dr Chris Pateman-Jones, CEO of Connected Kerb EV Charging Solutions, noted that rural chargepoints were not always less commercially viable, stating that; “There is no reason why you cannot go off to rural areas; it is just about proportionally putting the right number of charging points in those locations.”280 Richard Bruce, Director of Transport Decarbonisation at the Department for Transport, told us the Government was: “ quite confident that the [chargepoint operator] businesses will be looking to the next 20 or 30 years and putting the charge points where they are going to be used.”281

139.Rolling out urban infrastructure poses different but still significant challenges. The Petrol Retailers Association noted that while rural residents may experience greater range anxiety, urban areas may suffer from higher demand for charging that is still not matched by infrastructure sufficient to accommodate it.282

140.Shamala Evans-Gadgil, EV Infrastructure Programme Manager working on behalf of Coventry City Council, noted that there is currently no requirement and minimal guidance for local authorities to ensure that chargepoint infrastructure is well distributed across both urban and rural areas.283 We heard praise for local authorities including Kent County Council and West Sussex County Council for making urban-rural balance central to their local strategies, and calls for better sharing of best practice.284

141.The Department for Transport, using data from ZapMap, maintains a map of the number of public chargepoints per 100,000 people across local authority areas. The top 10 and bottom 10 local authority areas of devices per 100,000 people are set out below.

Table 5: The top 10 areas with the highest number of devices per 100,000 people by Local Authority and the bottom 10 areas with the lowest number of devices per 100,000 people by local authority

Top 10 Local Authority Area

Number of devices/100,000 people

Hammersmith and Fulham




City of London




Kensington and Chelsea












Bottom 10 Local Authority Areas

Castle Point






Staffordshire Moorlands












North Kesteven


Source: Data taken from the Department for Transport’s map of density of charging devices by local authority area. See: Department for Transport, ‘Electric charging devices by local authority’, (October 2023): https://maps.dft.gov.uk/ev-charging-map/index.html [accessed 18 January 2024]

Though some local authorities have made significant progress, according to the Renewable Energy Association as many as 70 per cent of local authorities currently do not have plans to develop EV charging infrastructure.285

142.To address the inconsistent progress made by authorities across the regions of the UK, some respondents recommended that a statutory duty be placed on local authorities to deliver EV infrastructure.286 However, others suggested this may be heavy-handed. Dr Chris Pateman-Jones said “I do not think you need to have a centralised plan, but I do think you need to have centralised guidance and clarity around that, so you can have consistency.”287

143.The Minister told us that the Government was considering introducing powers to issue instructions to local authorities to ensure that there is on-street charging in different areas.288 He added that a statutory duty was in the Government’s view “a bit blunt, because a lot of local authorities already have that in place and are doing very well, and a statutory duty would create quite an administrative burden on local authorities without any real benefit.”289 Richard Bruce added that in time, the public and chargepoint operators would likely exert their own pressure onto local authorities which were seen to be lagging behind.290

144.Progress in rolling out public charging infrastructure is highly variable across the UK, with rural areas particularly at risk of having insufficient infrastructure. The Government told us it was considering new powers to issue instructions to local authorities in areas without enough chargepoints. We recommend that the Government introduce these new powers urgently and use them to direct local authorities in areas where there are fewer than 50 public chargepoints per 100,000 people to prepare EV strategies. This will help to ensure a more evenly distributed chargepoint rollout.

Different types of chargepoints

145.The speed and power of chargepoints can be broken down into four power ratings which also divide into AC and DC chargers.291

146.Table 6 shows the growth rates of chargepoints by power ratings from August 2022 to August 2023.

Table 6 Change in number of public chargepoints from August 2022–August 2023

August 2022

December 2022

August 2023

Year on
year growth
















Ultra Rapid










Source: Written evidence from Zapmap Limited (ELV0102)

There are an estimated 680,000 home chargers installed across the country, corresponding to around 80 per cent of the 850,000 EVs currently on the road. However, home charging is not available to households without off-street parking—many of those in flats or in terraced housing, for example. These households are often less affluent. Drivers in such homes are always going to need public, workplace or destination charging. There is therefore a social justice issue involved in the transition.

147.Moreover, all drivers—irrespective of their access to home charging—need access to a range of locations and speeds of charging that fits their timing needs and route preferences. We heard that the rollout of rapid chargepoints is progressing well through commercial partnerships (with the exception of motorway service areas, which are discussed in more detail later in this chapter).295 We heard greater concern about on-street charging, essential for those without access to off-street parking and home chargers.296

148.Estimates suggest that between 25–40 per cent of UK households do not have access to off-street parking and must rely on public chargepoints.297 We heard that this disparity is most acute for those in multi-occupancy buildings and lower-income households. The Urban Transport Group told us that housing with no access to off-street parking tends to correlate with areas of economic deprivation.298 Electrifying.com argued that “those who don’t have access to a private driveway are being discriminated against in the switch and that often is lower income drivers and those who live in cities and built-up places.”299

149.Lower-powered, on-street AC charging involves cheaper installation for operators, less demand on the grid, and cheaper prices for consumers. Ensuring that the rollout of on-street charging proceeds rapidly, while taking account of broader issues such as pavement access and safety, is essential to provide fair and equitable access to charging across the UK.

The rollout of charging infrastructure

The role of local authorities

150.Though the delivery of EV infrastructure is not a statutory duty for local authorities, some are already playing a significant role.300 Coventry, for example, has the largest public chargepoint network outside London with over 1,250 chargepoints—the majority of which are on-street chargepoints, in a city where more than 46 per cent of properties have no off-street parking.301 Stakeholders agreed that local authorities are well placed to play a central role in overseeing EV infrastructure delivery with their understanding of local needs.302 They are also responsible for balancing the need to support EV infrastructure against a range of other priorities, including the management of pavement space.303 They are the responsible bodies for parking and street alterations and owners of highways and key land.304

151.We heard that local authorities encounter a range of opportunities and challenges in developing charging infrastructure. Support is available from central Government through the On-street Residential Chargepoint Scheme and Local Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Fund, though as we set out below these have limitations in scope and have seen significant delays in their rollout. We also heard that the Government could facilitate greater sharing of best practice among local authorities, and that targeted amendments to planning regulations could have a significant impact on the speed of the rollout.

On-street Residential Chargepoint Scheme

152.The On-street Residential Chargepoint Scheme (ORCS) is open to local authorities and part funds the cost of installing chargepoints up to speeds of 22kW.305

153.OZEV told us that the scheme had funded the installation of over 14,000 chargepoints.306 However, some witnesses raised concern about restrictions and delays to the scheme holding back progress.307 Applications for the 2022–23 funding round took up to 8 months to be approved, with some projects still awaiting approval in September 2023. The 2023–2024 funding round was announced in March 2023 but application forms and guidance were made available only in October.308 Connected Kerb called for urgent Government action to accelerate these processes, and clear any backlog.309

154.These delays notwithstanding, we heard that the ORCS has a valuable role in supporting smaller discrete projects, and calls for it to be continued to complement the Local Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Fund (LEVI) which takes a more large-scale approach across a local authority area (see below).310 Shamala Evans-Gadgil told us that the ORCS had enabled the installation of over 1,000 chargepoints in Coventry.311 Connected Kerb added that it was “supportive, in principle, of well-designed subsidy schemes” that work with industry “to unlock and maximise the impact of private investment”, provided that processes move at the pace of the market and are clearly communicated.312

155.The ORCS continues to enable a number of small-scale but important installation projects. However, considerable delays to the application process have risked limiting wider success. The Government should continue the ORCS alongside the LEVI Fund enabling targeted support for smaller discrete projects. In response to this report, the Government should set out what actions it has taken and will take to ensure that application and implementation processes are not undermined by delays in future.

Local Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (LEVI) Funding

156.The LEVI Fund was launched in 2022 and expanded in February 2023 to support local authorities in delivering the Government’s EV Infrastructure Strategy.313 Whereas the earlier ORCS provides only direct subsidies for each chargepoint installed, the LEVI Fund also provides £37.8 million in “capability funding.” This is intended to support local authorities which may lack resources and capacity to deliver chargepoint infrastructure. 314 There is also a local government knowledge hub, the LEVI Support Body, which includes guidance in areas where councils may lack specialised knowledge such as developing contracts with chargepoint operating companies.315

157.The LEVI Fund has been broadly welcomed by councils and chargepoint operators.316 Midlands Connect described the fund as a “step-change” in the delivery of public charging infrastructure.317 The Local Government Association (LGA) described the LEVI Fund as a “significant improvement” upon the ORCS.318 We heard that the LEVI Fund has been highly successful at “galvanising action in local authorities”, including among authorities that had been hesitant about engaging with the ORCS.319 However, witnesses highlighted a need for improvement in some areas, including reducing delays in funding rollout, expanding eligibility for capability funding within local authorities and extending support beyond the existing life of the scheme.

158.Stakeholders raised concerns about delays to the LEVI rollout. The LEVI Fund was due to be opened for applications in 2022 but this was then delayed to 2023, impacting both authorities and chargepoint operators.320 London Councils noted that delays led to condensed workplans and rushed applications which could limit strategic objectives.321 Connected Kerb stated that clear and consistent communication about timelines would be welcomed..322 Dr Chris Pateman-Jones also noted that otherwise commercially viable projects were held back while local authorities awaited announcements from the scheme. 323

159.Local authorities are not obliged to apply for LEVI funding, which some stakeholders said was problematic.324 Dr Chris Pateman-Jones noted a concern that central Government had devolved its responsibilities for chargepoint deployment to local authorities, which did not have the necessary capability and capacity.325 The LGA questioned whether funding chargepoints via competitive bidding for short-term schemes was an efficient approach to such crucial infrastructure.326 Similarly, the Urban Transport Group argued that local authorities need to be supported in developing and delivering strategic investment opportunities rather than bidding into pots of competitive funding.327 The LGA called for Local Transport Plans to be linked to longer-term funding so that Plans function cohesively across a range of longer-term transport initiatives, rather than serving only as bidding documents for more short term LEVI funding.328

160.However, Richard Bruce suggested that the role of local and national Government in the charging rollout was and should be limited. He told us:

“This is not a government-led rollout. This is led by a very dynamic, vibrant charge point sector that has lots of capital to invest and is looking at the best places to put those charge points. It is not a big state intervention, with local authorities or central government planning where things should go, because that would be entirely wrong.”329

161.While local authorities welcomed the introduction of capability funding, they expressed concerns that the constraints surrounding it may limit its ability to achieve its aims.330 Council planning and legal teams are key to infrastructure delivery but not covered by the funding.331 The funding available to a council through the LEVI Fund equates to one full-time appointment, but we heard that finding a sole individual with the broad range of necessary skills is very difficult.332 Instead, local authorities may be forced to rely on consultants, which can mean experience and expertise is lost at the end of the projects.333

162.Support through the LEVI Fund is due to end in 2025.334 Stakeholders noted that local authorities’ work in chargepoint rollout needs to be self-sustaining over time and that at present there is minimal budget to carry out this work without Government subsidy.335 Several submissions recommended an extension of the scheme beyond 2024–25 to support the design of business models that can deliver infrastructure sustainably in the long term.336 We heard that authorities which have made significant early progress, such as Durham County Council, have developed business models that will be sustainable in the long term, but many councils have not got this far.337

163.WSP consultancy told us that many local authorities have benefited from the technical and commercial training and guidance through the LEVI Support Body and that continuing this throughout and beyond the length of the projects would be valuable, reducing duplication of effort and facilitating the sharing of best practice.338 We heard that support such as standardised templates for contracts between local authorities and chargepoint operators would help remove divergence and delay in the application system.339

164.We heard that guidance about how the funding should be spent could benefit from clarification.340 We heard recommendations to target LEVI funding in areas which are less commercially viable to maximise the value of public investment.341 However, sites with high and low commercial viability are currently equally eligible for LEVI funding. 342

165.Carwow suggested the creation of charging incentives which specifically target social equity, for example targeting subsidies at lower-income areas based on postcodes.343 The Competition and Markets Authority welcomed that the LEVI Fund considers the level of rurality alongside other factors in allocating funding, but encouraged the Government to consider specifically targeting funding at gaps in remote areas which may otherwise not be served.344

166.The LEVI fund is welcome, but the slow pace of the rollout has significantly undermined progress and frustrated investment. The Government should set and communicate clear timelines and deadlines for the scheme and provide sufficient time for application preparation.

167.We heard from a range of stakeholders that current guidance for applications to the LEVI Fund is not sufficient, particularly around the best approach to expenditure at a given site. We also heard that the guidance and training provided through the LEVI Support Body has been useful and that it should be continued throughout the lifetime of the project.

168.The capability funding as part of the LEVI Fund is welcome, but we heard that it does not cover the additional functions and resources that local government needs in order to deliver EV infrastructure projects. The Government should consider widening the scope of the capability funding to cover other essential functions, such as legal and planning teams.

169.The Government should also investigate options for building on the LEVI Support Body to address skills shortages. The Government should consult local authorities about what guidance and training they need as part of the LEVI scheme and seek to adjust the offer accordingly.

170.The scheme is due to end in 2025, but we heard that an extension would allow local authorities to plan more strategically and adopt self-sustaining approaches. We recommend that the scheme is extended for a further three years and that the Government refine its focus to target areas that are falling behind with chargepoint infrastructure delivery.

Destination charging

171.Though the widespread rollout of on-street charging is essential to the transition, it is not a panacea. The Urban Transport Group noted that in busy areas, the allocation of parking spaces to EV charging could cause tensions as non-EV drivers will find they have fewer parking options.345 Focus groups conducted by Energy Systems Catapult highlight that other solutions such as neighbourhood charging hubs may be equally if not more popular. Participants raised concerns that on-street charging would make “parking wars” worse, whereas networks of fast “charging hubs” at supermarkets, petrol stations or neighbourhood shops under a 10-minute drive away would do more to encourage uptake of EVs.346

172.For these reasons, several witnesses recommended a simultaneous focus on destination charging, usually described as anywhere a driver stops for 20 minutes or more such as supermarkets, hotels or other longer-stay locations.347 We heard from one local authority that as the charging network grows and consumer behaviour evolves, EV drivers increasingly appear to prefer charging at these destinations.348 Frank Burmeister suggested that destination charging was the “dominant” public charging type drivers tended to prefer in the Netherlands.349 We heard that the successful expansion of destination charging could offer a more convenient driver experience than ICE vehicles.350 As Ian Johnston noted, the “ubiquity of electricity” could mean “that you no longer need to make a defined route to a gas station to refuel your vehicle; you can charge at the supermarket, at the train station, at your workplace.”351

173.Most destination charging is installed on private land, and therefore not included in the Government’s public infrastructure targets. Hertfordshire County Council noted that this poses challenges for monitoring, and “There is a particular gap in knowledge about what the private sector (e.g., supermarket chains, fuel forecourt providers, hotel chains) are planning to do in relation to the installation of EV chargers.”352

174.We heard that private providers have broad confidence that they can continue to deliver destination charging with minimal intervention.353 However, we also heard a range of suggestions for how Government could further encourage and support businesses and organisations that have not yet done so to roll out destination charging. For example, London Councils noted that commercially run public car parks, such as those at train stations, present an opportunity.354 They suggested that the Government engage with organisations such as National Car Parks and Network Rail to encourage the development of charging infrastructure.355 Mykos Technologies said that there is a role for local authorities in enabling the conversion of existing petrol station forecourts in towns to community charging stations as the demand for petrol eventually subsides.356 The LGA told us that “Public space has many uses … Councils are happy to support public chargepoints on private land where this fits into local plans.”357

Workplace charging

175.We heard that workplace charging also offers a good alternative for drivers without home charging access.358 Pod Point suggest that as much as 30 per cent of all charging could take place at work (though we note this could be affected by increased working from home).359

176.The Government’s EV Infrastructure Strategy assumes that EV owners without off-street parking will source approximately 40 per cent of their energy at workplaces.360 It also notes that the Government’s advisory targets of 300,000 public chargepoints by 2030 is based on an assumption that there is “a high proportion of charging at workplaces”.361 However, the Strategy’s modelling assumptions are based on studies of existing charging behaviour.362 The access to workplace charging that early adopters enjoyed may not be available to all drivers—21 per cent of respondents to a recent Auto Trader survey stated that they would not switch to an EV because there is no charging option at their workplace.363AutoTrader also noted that greater emphasis on workplace charging could “solve local infrastructure problems”; if employees charge at work during the day, they will likely be far less reliant on on-street charging infrastructure. The local community near the workplace may then also be able to charge there at the weekends or evenings.

177.The Workplace Charging Scheme offers charities and businesses grants of up to £350 per socket for up to 40 sockets for employees and commercial fleets.364 The Office for Zero Emission Vehicles told us that 42,000 chargepoints had been installed under this scheme up to 1 April 2023.365 There are also grants of up to £15,000 for small to medium sized businesses and public sector organisations, including campsites, B&Bs and small hotels, to install chargepoint infrastructure.366

178.We heard a range of views on whether the scheme should be extended. UK Power Networks supported the Government’s approach in the EV Infrastructure Strategy to end direct subsidy for workplace charging “at the earliest appropriate time” to enable public funding to be targeted to less commercially viable areas.367 Pod Point, however, told us that uptake had been more limited than expected, partly due to low awareness, and called for the Workplace Charging Scheme to be extended beyond April 2024.368 AutoTrader called for the Government to play a more “significant role in encouraging the growth of at-work charging points,” given the centrality of workplace charging to a successful EV rollout.369

179.Destination charging, including at supermarkets, hotels and workplaces, is convenient for consumers and can reduce reliance on but not replace on-street residential charging.

180.The Government’s advisory targets for the public chargepoint rollout depend on a high proportion of workplace charging. However, the number of workplace and other forms of destination chargepoints is currently not monitored. This means that nobody knows if a crucial pillar of the Government’s EV Infrastructure Strategy is keeping pace with expectations. We recommend that the Government monitor this important element of the charging rollout.

181.We welcome the Government’s scheme to support workplace chargepoint installation but heard that the scheme is not well utilised and uptake is slow, suggesting it is not adequately publicised. Additionally, the growth in privately funded workplace charging infrastructure is not monitored and so the overall picture is unclear.

182.In response to this report, the Government should set out its assessment of how the market-led rollout of workplace charging is progressing, and on what basis it is confident that this is sufficient to end direct subsidy through the Workplace Charging Scheme in April 2024. The Government should also set out its assessment of how the market-led rollout of other forms of destination charging is progressing.

183.The Government should gather comprehensive data on the availability of workplace chargepoints and consult on mandating workplaces with designated car parking spaces and more than a certain number of employees to install chargepoints using the grant.

Multi-occupancy buildings

184.EV drivers in multi-occupancy buildings, rented or owned, face additional barriers to installing chargepoints. Renters are particularly less likely to seek permission for a chargepoint at a property they do not own due to the costs involved.370 This will increase reliance on on-street charging.371

185.Under the EV Chargepoint Grant, payments of up to £350 per chargepoint are available for those in rented accommodation, flats and multi-occupancy buildings.372 Grants are also available for both private and social housing landlords.373 Grants worth up to £30,000 are also available for the cost of wider building work related to the installation of multiple chargepoints in residential car parks and apartment blocks.374

186.Individual grants do not cover the total costs of chargepoints.375 Respondents reported difficulty in getting permission for chargepoint installation, with one respondent saying that the process had taken two years so far and they were yet to have a chargepoint installed.376 WSP noted that tenants typically lack bargaining power to influence potentially reluctant landlords to take action and struggle to access impartial guidance on how to go about seeking a chargepoint.377

187.Carbon Copy told us that polling suggests most consumers are unaware of the ongoing provision of chargepoint funding and grants for renters and flat owners, and that more needs to be done to raise awareness with residents.378 This lack of awareness is hampering rollout in these settings. We heard that incentives for landlords to participate in the process, or greater rights for tenants, could help to boost chargepoint installation in these properties.379

188.Planning reforms will also be necessary to increase chargepoint installations in multi-occupancy buildings. We discuss these in the section on planning later in this chapter.

189.We welcome the targeting of private chargepoint grants to drivers and residents in situations where securing chargepoint installation is more challenging and where the private sector is unlikely to deliver chargepoint provision. However, we heard that awareness of these schemes is low. The Government should explore ways to publicise and raise awareness of available schemes through the public information campaign we call for in Chapter 2 of this report.

190.Some tenants and leaseholders experience significant delays in obtaining a chargepoint. They often have limited bargaining power to request chargepoint installation in their residences where landlords are reluctant. The Government should consult on offering a ‘right to charge’ for tenants and leaseholders in multi-occupancy buildings to address landlord reluctance. Given the delays experienced by tenants seeking permission to install a chargepoint, the Government should extend the deadline for the grant scheme for landlords and tenants.

Motorway charging

191.Installing rapid chargers along the strategic road network380 will be critical to give consumers confidence in driving an EV.381 Transport & Environment UK noted that many drivers make car ownership decisions based not on their day-to-day use but on the longest journey they might make; if they do not have confidence an EV will enable them to make this journey, they will likely purchase an ICE vehicle instead.382

192.The Government aimed to have “at least 6 high powered [rapid], open access chargepoints (15–350 kilowatt capable) at each motorway service area in England” by the end of 2023.383 During our inquiry, we heard that the Government was not on track to hit this target—and in January 2024 the RAC reported that by the end of 2023 only 39 per cent of English motorway service areas had the target number of chargepoints.384 The Government also aims to have around 6,000 high-powered, open-access rapid chargepoints across England’s motorways and major A roads by 2035.385

Rapid Charging Fund

193.The Rapid Charging Fund was announced in March 2020 to support upgrading and future-proofing electrical capacity by installing additional transformers along the strategic road network, including motorway service areas.386 £950 million was allocated to the Fund.387

194.The Minister, Anthony Browne MP, told us that the Fund is intended to support the installation of rapid charging points at motorway service areas where they would not otherwise be commercially viable.388 We heard that the costs of grid and electrical infrastructure upgrades at motorway service areas are significant and that, were chargepoint operators to shoulder these, the resulting price for consumers would be punitive.389 Richard Bruce added that waiting for these sites to become commercially viable would mean waiting a long time for chargepoints to be installed, possibly well past the 2035 phase-out date.390

195.The Fund however, had not yet opened for applications at the outset of our inquiry.391 The Finance and Leasing Association noted a “sense of drift in this important element of the delivery programme”.392 We heard strong support for the Rapid Charging Fund and witnesses urged the Government to accelerate its delivery.393

196.We asked the Government to explain the delay. The Minister noted that several issues had delayed the launch of the scheme and Richard Bruce added that developing regulatory terms around who pays for the electricity had been particularly complicated.394 On 6 December 2023, after our inquiry had finished taking evidence, the Government announced a £70 million pilot scheme of the Rapid Charging Fund395 (less than 10 per cent of the £950 million originally earmarked for the scheme) and opened a consultation on the design of the Fund.396

197.Evidence we received emphasised ways in which the Fund could be designed to maximise impact. SSE argued that the Government must take an explicitly regional approach to allocating funds, targeted at less commercially viable areas across the entire strategic road network, rather than just defaulting to motorway service areas.397 The National Grid called for an expansion of the Fund’s initial remit in order to futureproof the grid for all future electric road transport, including zero-emission HGVs.398 SMMT called for a minimum number of rapid chargepoints per motorway service area, depending on the size of the site and expected traffic, with reviews every two years to ensure that installation is keeping pace with uptake.399

198.Consumers need confidence that they will be able to charge their electric vehicle, no matter how long their journey. Yet the Government has missed its target to have at least 6 high powered chargepoints at each motorway service area in England by the end of 2023. The Rapid Charging Fund is designed to support the delivery of rapid and ultra-rapid chargepoints at motorway service areas at a reasonable cost to consumers but has experienced significant delays. While we welcome the recent announcement of a pilot fund and consultation on the design of the scheme, there has been a concerning lack of progress nearly four years after the Fund was announced.

199.Progress in this area must be accelerated urgently. In response to this report, the Government should confirm its revised deadline for meeting its motorway service area chargepoint target. The Government should also periodically review this target and publish its findings to ensure it keeps pace with the number and category of electric vehicles on the roads.

200.In allocating funds from the Rapid Charging Fund, the Government must ensure that these are distributed according to need across the Strategic Road Network. There is a risk that motorway services areas are prioritised over the wider strategic road network which includes important A roads, especially now the Government is behind on its motorway service area target. When opening applications to the Rapid Charging Fund, the Government must make clear its criteria on how funds will be allocated.

Planning regulation and barriers to delivery

201.Several stakeholders highlighted the need to review and streamline planning processes associated with chargepoint installation.400 OZEV told us the Government wants to make these processes as smooth as possible.401 However, we heard that significant change would be necessary to achieve this aim. ChargeUK noted that charging infrastructure is often granted permission, but that the process is time-consuming, costly and unpredictable.402

202.We also heard that the interpretation of planning rules varies significantly across different local authorities, which must be taken into account by prospective chargepoint operators.403 Stakeholders noted that this divergence is hampering progress.404 Some stakeholders recommended that Government produce guidance to support greater consistency, while Shell suggested that processes should be centralised.405 Given their important role in strategic delivery of EV infrastructure, some called for enhanced priority for rapid and ultra-rapid charging hubs, similar to Nationally Significant Infrastructure Projects, to help to simplify the planning process.406

203.Richard Bruce told the Committee that the Government was aware of a number of bottlenecks at the local level caused by planning permissions.407 He added that the Department was working with the Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities to resolve issues case-by-case.408 He explained that the planning framework was not designed for EV installation and so it was taking time to make the changes needed.409

204.OZEV noted in evidence that the Government was exploring options for a unified consent process for installing EV chargepoints.410 In October 2023, the Department for Transport also published the Plan for Drivers which noted the Government’s intention to consult on making it easier for chargepoint operators to install chargepoint infrastructure on public highways, and on the expansion of permitted development rights to make private chargepoint installation easier and cheaper.411 In December 2023, the Prime Minister committed to consulting on amending the National Planning Policy Framework to ensure it “prioritises” the rollout of EV chargepoints.412

205.The installation of chargepoints is a national priority. But planning and other associated regulations are holding back progress. Simplified and standardised planning processes are needed, whereby these overlapping regulatory processes can be satisfied in a single step. We are pleased to hear that OZEV is considering the development of unified consent processes to streamline the various consents required for planning and permitting. We recommend that the Government publish its plans as early as possible to support infrastructure rollout. We set out in further detail below the aspects of planning regulation that should be reviewed as part of this process.

Pavement gullies

206.We heard that, owing to the lower prices associated with home charging, some EV owners attempt to trail cables across pavements or out of windows to charge their vehicles, creating trip hazards and rendering the pavement unsafe for wheelchair users and push chairs.413

207.We were told that cable pavement gullies, covered channels cut into the pavement, may offer a solution, and have been piloted by some councils.414 Peter Ollivere, Spatial Policy Team Leader at Durham County Council, told us that Durham County Council are trialling pavement gullies following calls from local residents.415 He added that clarification from the Government about what planning permission is necessary for gully installation would be valuable.416 Shamala Evans-Gadgil and WSP noted that there is a lack of clarity over liability for potential trip hazards.417

208.The Department for Transport’s Plan for Drivers, published in October 2023, noted that the Government would be seeking to provide guidance on the use of safe cross-pavement solutions to local authorities.418 The Plan added that the Government would build on these measures by expanding the Electric Vehicle Chargepoint Grant to support cross-pavement solutions.419

209.Pavement cable gullies may be a solution for a limited number of households, offering access to charging immediately outside the home and at domestic energy prices—which are currently cheaper than public charging and are already being explored in some areas of the country. However, it is essential that these do not threaten the accessibility or safety of the pavement. Some local authorities may understandably be hesitant about granting permission due to a lack of clarity about the necessary planning permissions and liability for hazards. The laying of cables across the pavement, in addition to confusion around who has the right to use the adjoining parking space, could create tension in local communities and careful communication and management by local authorities will be required. We welcome the Government’s stated intention to provide guidance on the use of cross-pavement solutions and urge this to be published as soon as possible.

Permitted Development Rights

210.Permitted development rights allow for specific works to take place without the requirement to submit a planning application.420 They are a devolved matter, allowing for different approaches across the nations of the UK.421

211.The installation of an EV chargepoint is a permitted development under planning law422 subject to certain restrictions:423 For example, chargepoints cannot exceed a height of 2 metres.424 We heard that this height stipulation poses an issue for chargepoint operators, for example when installing on a kerb.425 In Scotland, permitted development rights were recently extended to taller chargepoints up to 2.7 metres, to allow for installation in National Parks or conservation areas and to allow permitted development rights for solar canopies and lighting of EV chargepoints.426 Permitted development rights do not allow for works to take place on public pavements, where separate permissions are required.427

212.Ian Johnston suggested that following the Scottish example would “without exaggeration, take between six to nine months off the average deployment.”428 The Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities (DLUHC) also consulted in 2023 on allowing permitted development rights for solar canopies, but did not proceed. ChargeUK advocated for permitted development rights for battery storage, lighting and housing for equipment as in Scotland, but these were not included in the UK Government’s consultation. The group also expressed concern that the changes implemented by DLUHC are limited in impact and do not go far enough to support infrastructure deployment.429

213.We welcome recent updates to the Permitted Development Rights (PDR) for chargepoint installation in England and Wales. However, we note that restrictions remain around chargepoint height which are inhibiting deployment. We heard that the Scottish government’s relaxation of the height restriction in its updates to Permitted Development Rights in Scotland has had a significant impact on accelerating the rollout.

214.The Government should review permitted development rights as they relate to chargepoint installation and launch a consultation that considers additional PDR for taller chargepoint installations and the installation of solar canopies.

Traffic Regulation Orders

215.We heard that the intersection between parking regulations and charging needs to be addressed.430 At many sites, it is necessary to label a parking bay with a chargepoint as “EV-only” which requires a Traffic Regulation Order (TRO). We heard that currently it can take up to five months to clear this statutory process, and that there is scope to shorten and modernise the process to support infrastructure delivery.431

216.In March 2022, the Government launched a consultation to explore proposed changes to TROs. It was specified that these changes would apply to designating “EV-only” parking bays.432 Proposed changes included creating TROs that could be applied for and published online to simplify and accelerate the process.433 At the time of publication, the Government had only published a partial response to the consultation which covered so-called ‘digital TROs’ that can be viewed online, but did not cover questions as they relate to EV chargepoints.434 The Department for Transport has decided to proceed with digitising TROs and to “amend primary legislation in England to include a requirement for traffic authorities to share all data about the TROs they make”.435 The Government has said it will publish part 2 of the response in due course.436

217.We heard that the Traffic Regulation Orders required to label parking bays as “EV-only” are causing significant delays in the delivery of chargepoint infrastructure. Though the Government launched a consultation into simplifying and streamlining the process for acquiring a Traffic Regulation Order in March 2022, it has yet to publish a complete response. The Government should publish its full response to the consultation on Traffic Regulation Orders as soon as possible.

The Highways Act 1980

218.We heard that parts of the Highways Act 1980 are creating challenges for local authorities delivering charging infrastructure.437 Section 115B of the Act, originally intended to manage how and where advertising is displayed on highways, states that before installing an asset that generates revenue, consent must be sought from the adjoining landowner.438 This now applies to the installation of chargepoints, including lamppost chargepoint installations. We heard this is causing significant delays to chargepoint operators who aim to install thousands of chargepoints—requiring consent for each installation amounts to thousands of consents that must be obtained.439 Connected Kerb noted that when seeking approval for chargepoints on streets, the rejection rate can be 50 per cent which makes it a very time-consuming and expensive process.440 Dr Chris Pateman-Jones noted that more needs to be done to communicate to residents the benefits of EV installation on their area and to push back sometimes against rejection by residents.441

219.Several stakeholders also raised the issue of non-standardised processes for resident consultation across different councils and local authorities and the delays that these can create.442 Some called for relevant regulations and legislation to be reviewed to maintain the consultation process but review the consenting process to ensure that it remains proportionate to a rollout of such high national priority.443 To address the delays caused by a range of consenting and permission processes, Charge UK suggested the development of a unified consent system in England to manage the multiple permissions needed from authorities.444 Ian Johnston noted that standardising planning processes would be a “quick win” that would make a significant difference to chargepoint operators.445 Steve Gooding, Director of the RAC Foundation, suggested that a Ministerial Task Force would be well placed to achieve this.446

220.We heard that application of Section 115B of the Highways Act 1980 to chargepoint installation is a major barrier to local authorities keen to progress with the rollout of infrastructure. It is time-consuming and establishes a disproportionately high threshold of consent relative to standard consultation processes. The concerns of residents and businesses must be heard and taken into account, but too many otherwise viable projects risk being stopped entirely where sensible mitigations achieved through consultation could provide a solution. This Section was not designed to apply to chargepoints and should be reviewed.

221.We recommend that the Government review Section 115B to determine whether it is fit for purpose as it applies to chargepoint installation and, if necessary, use the earliest legislative opportunity to amend the legislation to prevent further delays.

Multi-occupancy buildings

222.In December 2021, the Government updated the building regulations to include ‘Approved Document S: Infrastructure for charging electric vehicles’.447 This stated that from June 2022, all new housing in England that includes parking must install EV charging infrastructure during development.448 The Minister told the committee that this will lead to approximately 150,000 chargepoints being installed per year.449 This also includes housing undergoing major renovation, where there is a change of use in a building and new non-residential properties.450

223.However, Pod Point highlighted that previous uncertainties around fire risk liabilities of charging infrastructure installed in covered car parks had led to it being exempted from the Part S Building Regulations.451 We heard that a recent study commissioned by the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles demonstrated that EV charging presented no elevated fire risk, yet the exemption remains in place.452 The Association of British Insurers also cited research indicating that more broadly, “the risk of fire for an EV and ICE are not significantly different”.453 However, we heard from Robin Brundle, Executive Chairman at Technology Minerals Plc, that when EVs do catch fire, they are harder to put out due containing more chemical energy compared to petrol and diesel vehicles.454

224.Besides new developments, there are currently no regulations requiring existing residential multi-occupancy buildings to have charging installed, only those undergoing major renovation.455 London Councils and Green Alliance called for existing flat blocks and communal buildings to have chargepoints retrofitted.456 However, we note that retrofitting multi-occupancy blocks poses significant challenges including space limitations, a lack of dedicated parking, complex installation processes and disputes about cost sharing.457

225.We welcome the Government’s updates to the building regulations which require all new developments with parking, and existing developments that are undergoing major renovation, to be fitted with chargepoints. However, these updates do not address obstacles to installing chargepoints in multi-occupancy buildings or buildings with designated parking for which chargepoint installation has been slow and difficult. While mandating retrofitting of these buildings with chargepoints may not be a proportionate step now due to associated costs, the Government should keep the potential for retrofitting multi-occupancy buildings under review. The Government should consider amendments to the Part S regulations following OZEV’s review of fire risks from chargepoints, to allow for installation in covered parking areas in new buildings.

The cost of charging

226.Alongside the rollout of a suitable number and range of chargepoints, consumers need access to charging that is affordable if they are to make the switch to EVs.

Charging costs relative to petrol refuelling

227.In many cases, EV charging costs less than petrol refuelling. We received extensive analysis on the relative prices of petrol refuelling versus EV charging. Electrifying.com told us that the threshold at which EV charging becomes more expensive than filling an average family car with petrol or diesel is approximately 70p per kWH.458

228.Analysis by Zouk Capital indicated that charging an EV at home or on the public low-powered infrastructure was cheaper than petrol refuelling costs at all indicative petrol prices listed.459 However, the cost benefits decrease or disappear when higher-speed public charging is used.460 In particular, owners reliant on rapid or ultra-rapid chargepoints will face increased costs relative to petrol cars at current prices.461

229.Figure 7 shows the relative prices of charging versus petrol, at a range of indicative prices. Positive numbers indicate where EV charging was found to be cheaper than petrol, and negative numbers where EV charging is more expensive.462

Figure 7: The cost of EV charging versus petrol fuelling for an 8,000-mile driver of both vehicles

Table with shading for values showing the cost of charging versus petrol fuellling for an 8,000 mile driver

Source: Written evidence from Zouk Capital LLP (ELV0044)463

This indicates that:

230.According to research by SMMT, 90 per cent of the electric car drivers they polled would not go back to an ICE vehicle and 57 per cent of these cited spending less on fuel as a benefit—although overwhelmingly these drivers had access to cheaper home charging (84 per cent).464 We heard that the higher costs at rapid and ultra-rapid chargepoints may pose a particular issue for higher-mileage drivers who are more dependent on these types of chargepoints and this may dissuade them from switching until later.465

231.Auto Trader also noted the variation in charging costs depending on the chargepoint used.466 Their data indicated that home charging, particularly on smart charging tariffs, offers significant savings that are lost when using rapid and ultra-rapid chargepoints.467 Home charging is the cheapest option, and could be made cheaper still through utilisation of smart charging and vehicle-to-grid technology, as we discuss in further detail below. 468

232.Home charging at all speeds currently offers significant cost benefits over petrol refuelling, and much of the slower public charging infrastructure is also cheaper. The Government should make this clear to consumers as part of the public information campaign that we are calling for. However, there is more that can be done to further bring costs down to incentivise consumers to make the switch including changes to energy pricing and VAT rates as discussed in paragraphs 236 and 243. This will be particularly significant for rapid and ultra-rapid charging, where the cost of charging remains high relative to petrol.

Electricity costs

233.Pod Point told us that the unusually high electricity prices recently have “weakened the economic case of EVs” and called for the Government to address this.469 According to surveys by What Car? magazine, 41 per cent of drivers cite electricity costs as a reason not to purchase an EV.470 Transport for London and the Greater London Authority told us that drivers have noted that rising electricity prices are increasing the cost of charging, particularly when compared to fossil fuels.471 Figure 7 sets out the price of charging as compared to petrol and diesel prices.

234.In February 2023, following our inquiry into the Boiler Upgrade Scheme, we wrote to the Government recommending that the link between the price of wholesale gas and electricity be weakened through electricity market reform in order to bring down the cost of electricity for consumers.472

235.We also note that recent years have seen high and volatile petrol and diesel prices: the Competition and Markets Authority found that 2022 was “the most volatile year for fuel prices since reliable records began.”473

236.Recent electricity price fluctuations have affected consumer confidence in the cost benefits of EVs. As EV uptake increases, EV owners will be more exposed to the cost of electricity. We reiterate our recommendation following our inquiry into the Boiler Upgrade Scheme that the Government review options for weakening the link between the price of wholesale gas and electricity through electricity market reform in order to reduce the cost of electricity for EV owners.

Charging costs: home versus rapid

237.Public charging attracts higher costs than home charging. In 2021, analysis by the National Audit Office of public data suggested that charging at home could be between 59 and 78 per cent cheaper than charging on the public network (depending on the wide variation in domestic electricity and on-street charging tariffs).474

238.We heard concerns that the impact of this is inequitable.475 As noted earlier in this chapter, those who are more reliant on public charging are often those on lower incomes. Respondents noted that the cost of charging varies quite significantly across chargepoint types and locations.476 Some individual members of the public called for a price cap for consumers, preferably at a lower cost than petrol and diesel.477

239.Different VAT rates apply to home charging (5 per VAT) and public charging (20 per cent). Pod Point raised concerns that this exacerbates existing inequalities by penalising those unable to access home charging who may be typically less affluent.478 We received near unanimous evidence in support of equalising the VAT rates for home and public charging.479 Furthermore, in multi-occupancy dwellings, 20 per cent VAT is charged for what is effectively domestic charging.480 Pod Point suggested that this should attract the domestic 5 per cent rate instead. According to Shamala Evans-Gadgil, residents are raising the issue of the VAT disparity face-to-face and in written consultations and want to know what local authorities and the Government are doing to address it.481

240.The Minister, Anthony Browne MP, noted that the difference between the two VAT rates “is only a very small part of the difference in price”, noting that chargepoint operators also pay higher prices for electricity than domestic consumers, but accepted that the discrepancy was a valid concern.482 The LGA was supportive of aligning VAT for domestic and non-residential charging and the role it could play in incentivising the switch to EVs, but noted that it would raise the question for the Treasury of recovering lost revenue.483 OZEV stated in their response that any expansion of VAT relief beyond what is already available would put additional pressure on public finances but that the Government keeps all taxes under review.484

241.Using the ZapMap price index figures for October 2023 it is possible to calculate the cost of charging if VAT rates were equalised.485 If VAT for public charging were reduced to 5 per cent, the price would drop from 55p per kWh to 48.1p for slow/fast charging, and from 79p per kWh to 70p for rapid charging.486 70p/kWh is the approximate threshold at which EV charging becomes more expensive than petrol fuels.487 An equalisation of VAT based on October 2023 prices would bring the price of public charging down to substantially below 70p/kWh for slow/fast charging and roughly equalise the costs of rapid/ultra-rapid chargepoints with those of petrol fuels.488

242.We received near-unanimous support for the equalisation of VAT rates between domestic and public charging. While VAT is not the only component affecting the difference in electricity pricing between domestic and public chargepoints, it is a lever that is available to the Government to address the price disparity. Our analysis suggests that VAT equalisation could improve the affordability of public chargepoints by bringing prices down to (a) roughly the same as petrol and diesel prices for rapid and ultra-rapid chargepoints, and (b) significantly below petrol and diesel prices for on-street slow-to-fast chargepoints.

243.We recommend that the Government explore options for equalising the VAT differential between public and domestic charging by reducing the 20 per cent VAT rate applied to public charging to 5 per cent in line with domestic electricity. As part of this, the Government should model the amount of revenue that would be lost by the Treasury, and explore options for recovering this in line with the holistic bonus-malus approach to taxation we call for in Chapter 3.

Smart charging and Vehicle-to-grid technology

Smart charging

244.Smart charging involves charging an EV when there is less demand on the grid, overnight for example, or when there is ample renewable energy, such as during periods of high wind. Smart charging may involve chargepoints with an interface or app that enables the consumer to set when an EV charges based on off-peak times, or via a smart tariff with an energy provider.489

245.The resulting energy used is cheaper for consumers. EDF estimates that charging via its ‘Go Electric Overnight’ tariff costs an average of 2.3 pence per mile.490 This is significantly less than the cost of home charging on a standard tariff, which EDF states costs an average of 8 pence per mile. According to the RAC, refuelling a petrol car costs an average of 16 pence per mile.491 Octopus Energy estimated that their ‘Intelligent Octopus’ tariff costs the average consumer £49 a month, compared to £165 for refuelling an ICE vehicle.492

246.Smart charging also reduces peak demand on the grid.493 Dr Russell Fowler, Senior Manager, Decarbonisation at the National Grid, stated that EV smart charging can reduce peak use of the grid by up 20 per cent, and reduces the need for energy storage.494 He suggested that if implemented widely, this would reduce the need to upgrade the grid amounting to a £1.4 billion reduction in investment required.495 We also heard that smart charging allows consumers to charge not only when electricity is cheapest, but also when the supply of renewable energy is most abundant and therefore further improving the environmental footprint of EVs.496

247.The Government’s January 2023 Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Action Plan set out actions the Government would take to enable widespread smart charging. Commitments included:

248.However, we heard concerns that regulatory uncertainty is hindering smart charging.499 Both Octopus Electric Vehicles and the Association for Decentralised Energy suggested that the metering standards and technology requirements in the Measuring Instrument Regulations 2016 are outdated and in tension with more recent legislation including the EV (Smart Charge Point) Regulations 2021 and the Energy Act 2023.500 Octopus noted that a lack of regulatory clarity now could lead to manufacturers following incorrect or inadequate requirements in the production of home chargepoints, which could mean expensive retrofitting at a later date.501 Both suggested that amending the Measurement Instrument Regulations would help enable providers to roll out smart charging at scale.502 The Minister told us that the Government has laid the groundwork to ensure that new private chargepoints are equipped for smart charging, though this “has not come in yet.”503

249.We heard concerns about a lack of regulatory clarity holding back the widespread deployment of smart charging. We recommend that the Government’s interim review of the EV Smart Chargepoint Regulations 2021 is brought forward to 2024, and takes into account their interaction with the Measurement Instrument Regulations 2016 to ensure any potential conflicts are resolved as soon as possible. This is essential to give industry confidence and ensure any need for expensive retrofitting of outdated chargepoints in future is avoided.

Vehicle-to-grid technology

250.Vehicle-to-grid technology is a more advanced form of smart charging. Through vehicle-to-grid charging, a customer agrees to use the battery in their vehicle as a source of distributed energy storage, allowing the car to ‘sell’ power to the grid when the car is fully charged and electricity prices are high.504 The benefits to both consumers and the grid were highlighted in a wide range of submissions.505 We heard that EVs, operating as hundreds of thousands of small-scale batteries directly connected to the grid, have significant potential to reduce peak demand on the grid by as much as 65 per cent.506 National Grid modelling suggested that a combination of smart charging and vehicle-to-grid use at peak times could increase grid capacity by 27GW by 2035 (the total capacity of the grid in 2021 was 112 GW).507 This would reduce reliance on rapid-access, carbon-intensive electricity generation.508

251.Vehicle-to-grid also offers cost benefits to consumers in the form of lower electricity bills.509 A recent study of over 300 EV vehicle-to-grid customers found that the average annual energy bill saving was £420.510 The Government estimates that this could reach up to £1,000 annually.511

252.We heard about several vehicle-to-grid pilots already taking place across the UK.512 However, witnesses noted several barriers to wider rollout, including high hardware costs, a lack of standardisation for connections and the lack of a vehicle-to-grid tariff.513 Richard Bruce told us that widespread vehicle-to-grid charging would “ultimately” be a reality in the UK.514 The Department for Energy Security and Net Zero’s V2X Innovation Programme was launched in 2022 to address technological barriers to wide-scale deployment of vehicle-to-grid technologies.515 The Government has committed to delivering this programme by 2025.516

253.The Committee heard that smart charging and vehicle-to-grid technologies are very promising, nascent technologies that could both reduce costs for consumers and balance demand on the grid as more low-carbon technologies such as heat pumps are connected to the grid. We recommend that the Government explore what more can be done to integrate these technologies into EV infrastructure rollout and to ensure consumers have access to these cost-saving measures.

Consumer issues and public chargepoint regulations

254.Alongside a well-distributed charging infrastructure and affordable charging, the consumer experience of charging must be user-friendly and reliable to facilitate a successful EV transition. However, in a 2023 survey of RAC members, over a third of EV drivers said that public chargepoints were not easy to use while 79 per cent said that chargepoints were not always working.517

255.We also received evidence on the following consumer concerns:

256.A number of respondents compared the experience of EV chargepoints unfavourably to using petrol stations.519 Some suggested that unlike chargepoints, petrol pumps are well lit, accessible to vehicles of all sizes, rarely involve queueing, have good signage, clear pricing and a cashier on site.520 The Government has recently made changes to regulations governing chargepoint standards. These were broadly well received by our witnesses. However, as we set out below, many stressed that their success would be contingent on enforcement, and identified a number of areas where the regulations could go further to deliver their aims.

The Public Charge Point Regulations 2023

257.The Public Charge Point Regulations 2023 introduced new rules concerning reliability, roaming, contactless payment, pricing transparency, accessible data and the provision of helplines for chargepoint users.521

258.Prior to publication of the Regulations in November 2023, we received written evidence that regulations to support standardisation and improvement of the consumer experience at public chargepoints would be very welcome.522 We also heard that the Regulations would assist local authorities in procuring charging infrastructure and in developing rigorous Key Performance Indicators in their procurement.523 Industry stakeholders were broadly supportive of the Regulations, with some noting that they underpin initiatives that have already been taken by industry.524

259.The RAC called for the Government to go further and to consider the Public Charging Charter they published in September 2023 along with the FairCharge campaign which includes targets such as a 48-hour repair target for non-working chargers, clear signage on motorways and other major roads to show the location and number of rapid and ultra-rapid chargers, and penalties for non-electric cars that park in charging bays.525 In France, motorway services carry signs that flag to drivers that there are chargepoints available and whether or not they are full—we heard calls to replicate this in the UK.526

260.Stakeholders called for the new standards and regulations to be implemented as quickly as possible.527 Given that the draft Regulations were first consulted on in 2021, and this is an evolving area, stakeholders noted that they should be kept under review.528

261.Though the 2023 Regulations themselves were welcomed, we heard some concerns about whether there would be sufficient resource for enforcement. The Office for Product Safety and Standards (OPSS) is the named enforcement authority responsible for ensuring compliance with the chargepoint regulations: SMMT expressed concern that the OPSS would be suitably resourced for the task.529 Stakeholders suggested that the regulations should be kept under review, and stressed that monitoring and enforcement would be crucial to their success.530

262.We welcome the Public Charge Point Regulations 2023, which recognise the centrality of chargepoints being accessible and user-friendly to a successful rollout. However, we encourage the Government to explore how these Regulations could go further to support consumers, especially as the transition and chargepoint technology continue to evolve. The Regulations should be reviewed by Summer 2025 at the latest. As part of this review, the Government should consider incorporating the Public Charging Charter and the targets of the FairCharge campaign into regulations.

263.Effective communication with drivers about the location and availability of chargepoints will be essential to reducing range anxiety. We recommend that in the next review of the Regulations the Government consider mandating ‘totem signs’ on motorways at the approach to service stations with EV charging facilities.

264.The success of the Public Charge Point Regulations 2023 will be contingent on enforcement. We recommend that the Government ensure the Office for Product Safety and Security is sufficiently resourced, or considers moving oversight of these important Regulations to a body or Department working more closely on EV uptake, to ensure that there is effective enforcement and that the Regulations deliver improved consumer confidence.

Contactless payment

265.The Regulations require all new public chargepoints with power of 8kW or above to ensure that contactless payment is available.531 Chargepoints below 8kW may continue to rely on alternative payment methods, including mobile apps, for usage. We heard calls from consumers to resolve the complex range of payment apps and processes.532 A recent survey by the Electric Vehicle Association England found that 67 per cent strongly preferred and 18 per cent somewhat preferred to use a contactless credit or debit card for payment at a chargepoint.533

266.Some witnesses including SMMT argued that omitting chargepoints below 8 kilowatts (estimated at around 90 per cent of all chargepoints) from requirements to offer contactless payment means that charging remains harder and more complex than refuelling ICE vehicles and puts the onus on consumers to use multiple apps and networks cards to access these chargepoints.534

267.However, a number of stakeholders noted significant challenges around adding contactless payment to the lower powered network.535 Ian Johnston stated that installing a contactless reader can double the cost of installing a slow chargepoint.536 Zouk Capital echoed this, noting that this would likely result either in fewer chargers being installed or costs passed on to the consumer to recoup the loss.537 Zouk Capital added that people tend to use the same slow chargepoints regularly in place of home charging, meaning that the continued use of apps will be less of an issue as they will most likely be using the same one repeatedly.538 We also heard that industry is developing solutions, including platforms that support a range of payment methods, and a fully automated method for charging and payment.539

268.Wider availability of contactless payment on the low powered chargepoint network could simplify and support chargepoint access for consumers. However, witnesses suggested the costs of installing contactless payment modules on the low powered network are significant compared to the cost of the installation and mandating this may risk either fewer chargepoints being installed, or costs being passed on to the consumer. We note that as technology continues to evolve and the industry matures, the costs of installing contactless payments may decrease. At a moment of opportunity for the UK’s charging network, we must avoid installing technology that becomes obsolete and must be retrofitted.

269.We recommend that the Government ensure contactless payment provisions of the 2023 Regulations are re-examined as part of the regular wider review of the Regulations we are calling for.

Accessibility of chargepoints

270.We received significant evidence in support of ensuring that chargepoints and chargepoint bays are accessible for disabled drivers.540 Disabled Motoring UK raised their concern that most chargepoints being installed to date are not accessible, with many being installed on plinths or high kerbs surrounded by bollards.541 As a result there are a limited number of chargepoints that disabled motorists can use independently and this presents a major barrier for them in transitioning to EVs.542 Additionally, many chargepoints have no system for managing cables to assist disabled drivers when connecting cables to vehicle charging sockets.543 The Motability Foundation also noted that at present, there are no clear design standards for accessible charging.544

271.Guidance has been provided by the British Standards Institute (BSI) in the form of PAS1899, published in October 2022.545 It sets out the specification for accessible charging but at present its application is not mandatory.546 It covers both the physical aspects of the environment surrounding fixed chargepoints, the location and spacing as well as the information provided to users at the chargepoint.547 The Government is encouraging adoption of its specifications and urging local authorities to incorporate accessibility into procurement processes and applications for OZEV grant schemes. 548

272.Some stakeholders called for compliance with the PAS1899 guidance to be made mandatory for all new chargepoints.549 Some proposed a cross-industry approach to implementing the guidance for local authorities and other landowners, particularly as to where responsibility for accessibility lies.550 The chargepoint operator Pod Point welcomed the PAS1899 guidelines but said that in their current form of a binary pass or fail and lengthy requirements, they would be very challenging to mandate across all chargepoints.551

273.We heard that the British Standards Institute Guidance on accessible charging (PAS 1899) provides good standards for making chargepoints accessible. It is crucial that those with disabilities can use public chargepoints. However, it may not be practicable for all chargepoints at every site to meet these standards, and imposing this would risk jeopardising the rollout. Instead, we recommend that chargepoint hubs over a certain size should be required to have a proportion of accessible chargers available that meet these standards.

The role of the Grid and Distribution Network Operators

274.The electricity grid is composed of the transmission and the distribution networks. Both play an important role in ensuring adequate power for the charging network. The transmission network delivers high voltage electricity to substations across the country, and is owned and maintained by the National Grid.552 The distribution network then delivers lower-voltage electricity from substations to homes and businesses via smaller pylons and underground cables.553 The distribution network is managed by Distribution Network Operators (DNOs).554

275.As the UK progresses towards net zero, increased demand for electricity from EVs, heat pumps and other devices will put additional demands on both the transmission and the distribution networks.555

The transmission network

276.We heard that the transition to EVs will have a limited impact on the overall amount of electricity needed in the grid. In 2021, the Climate Change Committee found that expected uptake of EVs could increase electricity demand by an estimated 30 Terawatt-hours (TWh) a year by 2030 and 65-100 TWh by 2050. This is compared to 300 TWh of electricity used today across the system.556 On an average cold spell in winter, when demand is at its peak, SMMT report that all plug-in vehicles charging at the same time during the evening peak would result in a power demand of 10.0GW (0.01TW) by 2030 and 21.2GW (0.02TW) by 2035.557 Richard Bruce told us that the transition to EVs would not impose significant additional demand on the grid, in part because many people will be incentivised by lower tariffs to charge their cars overnight when demand is much lower—so-called smart charging.558

277.Richard Bruce added that some increased electricity generation would be necessary, but would be far less for transport than it will be for other sectors.559 The EV transition is one of a broader range of policies to transition to low-carbon technology such as the electrification of heat through the deployment of heat pumps and the electrification of industrial processes.560 The National Grid and Government have repeatedly stated that the UK’s grid will be able to handle the overall demand expected from increased EV adoption, provided upgrades proceed as planned.561

278.However, we heard some concern around the pace of these upgrades.562 We were told that while smart charging and vehicle-to-grid technology would reduce the need for grid upgrades, it will not eradicate it.563 Energy UK argued that a short-term focus on cost-efficiency in electricity regulation and policy has caused underspend relative to what is required to deliver on the Government’s ambitions.564 Several witnesses reiterated recommendations from the August 2023 Winser Report, that identified possible solutions to accelerate the deployment of electricity transmission including improving strategic planning, streamlining planning consent and speeding up approval of key projects.565

279.There has been some recent progress in this area. In November 2023, the Government published revised National Policy Statements and Ofgem set out a new policy to clear ‘zombie projects’ from the connection queue for energy generation projects.566 The Government and Ofgem also released a joint Connections Action Plan aiming to tackle queue delays.567 The Plan raises the entry requirements to enter the queue, removes stalled projects, frees up current network capacity, moves away from the first-come, first-served approach to queue management for both transmission and distribution projects, and builds longer-term connection demand into strategic planning.568 The Government has also stated it is developing a Strategic Spatial Energy Plan as recommended by the Winser review.569 However, Government announcements to date have not delivered any prioritisation measures for low-carbon projects.

280. Increasing the grid’s transmission capacity and connecting more energy generation projects is only part of the challenge. Ensuring that EVs are genuinely low-carbon depends on the electricity they use for charging being decarbonised.

281.In 2021, the then Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy published plans to decarbonise the UK’s electricity system by 2035.570 Delivering a decarbonised grid requires considerable infrastructure deployment at pace.571 For example, we heard that delivering the Government’s ambition for 50GW of offshore wind by 2030—a key component of the drive towards decarbonising the UK’s electricity system—will require the building of five times more transmission lines before 2030, more than have been built in the last 30 years.572 The Climate Change Committee stated in their report on ‘Delivering a reliable decarbonised power system’ that deployment needs to happen at a much greater pace than the present regulatory, planning and consenting regimes can achieve.573

282.The National Grid called for a “collective shift in mindset around how we do things to meet those demands”.574 They set out five priority actions to achieve the 2035 target: reforming the planning system; ensuring that the regulatory and governance framework is set up for delivery; changing how clean energy connects to the grid; accelerating net zero projects; and developing both supply chain capacity and the skills pipeline across the country.575

283.We heard calls for the Government’s recent reforms to the transmission network to go further by explicitly prioritising net zero connection projects over other electricity generation projects. The National Grid called for “a fast-track connection route for critical and strategically important net zero projects, prioritising projects where the economic value could be greatest.”576

284.We welcome recent announcements to improve queue management for transmission projects and to speed up the time needed to build new transmission infrastructure. However, these still do not allow for strategic prioritisation of low-carbon or renewable energy projects ahead of other energy generation. In order for the positive environmental impact of EVs to be maximised, they need to be powered by low-carbon energy generation on the grid. The UK should be seeking to decarbonise the grid as quickly as possible, and prioritisation of low-carbon projects would assist in that process. This would also underpin the decarbonisation impacts of a wide range of other policy changes including the transition to heat pumps and the electrification of industrial processes.

285. We recommend that the Government designate low-carbon and renewable energy generation projects as strategically important net zero projects and fast track their progress through permitting and grid connection to achieve a decarbonised electricity grid as soon as possible and to support consumer confidence in EVs as a low-carbon technology.

The distribution network

286.Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) play a critical role in the delivery of EV charging infrastructure.577 They are responsible for maintaining and upgrading the local grid to support customer demand.578 The uptick in EV ownership presents a greater demand for power in a local area and so is managed by DNOs.579 When a customer such as a Chargepoint Operator develops plans to install chargepoints, they notify the DNO and are placed into a queue for a new grid connection.

287.We heard about two main challenges around DNOs and EV chargepoints: queue management for grid connections and available capacity in the local distribution networks.

Connection queue management

288.DNOs have seen significant growth in low-carbon technology connection applications which is placing existing processes under pressure.580 The Minister stated that there is currently a bottleneck around installations because of the huge volume of connections that DNOs are working on, which has created a backlog.581 By mid-2023, DNOs had connected around 29,000 customer EV infrastructure projects, representing around 2GW of capacity, but this is expected to increase rapidly as the Zero Emissions Vehicle mandate progresses.582

289.We heard that for grid connections, delays can reportedly last years depending on the complexity of the network and the permissions required.583 National Grid told us that the requirements for entry into the queue for grid connections are low, leading to so-called ‘zombie projects’ not ready for implementation taking up space in the queue.584 Delays are particularly acute in parts of Central and West London where the demand and competition for grid connections is significant.585 London and Borough Councils told us this could severely limit and delay their ability to deliver EV infrastructure.586 Shell stated that at present, around 600 projects at a combined capacity of 176GW are currently awaiting connection to the grid in England and Wales.587 This compares to 64GW of currently connected capacity.588

290.At present there are no contractual obligations on developers to demonstrate the progress of their projects which means they can act as ‘blockers’ in the pipeline of connections.589 We heard this may lead to some developers submitting applications simply to hold a place in the queue, regardless of the readiness of the project.590

291.The Office for Zero Emission Vehicles stated that it is aware of these delays, and is working with the Department for Energy Security and Net Zero and DNOs to address them.591 During the course of this inquiry, Ofgem and the Government have made a number of announcements that address the connection queue issues set out above. Their joint Connections Action Plan, which applies to both the transmission and distribution networks, sets out that from 2024 DNOs will be responsible for strengthening entry requirements to the queue, monitoring application of queue management principles from the plan, as well as bringing forward recommendations to optimise existing network capacity and effective allocation of network capacity among other measures.592

292.We welcome the recently announced Connections Action Plan and urge the Government to move quickly to implement the crucial changes to address the delays currently experienced in the queue for grid connections. We recommend that the Government considers how best to prioritise EV chargepoints in the queue as projects of strategic and national importance.

Distribution network upgrades

293.DNOs manage how the overall capacity of the national electricity grid is divided up at a local level. In some areas, available capacity is limited or already allocated, meaning that upgrades are required to create additional local provision such as installing additional transformers. Ian Cameron, Director of Customer Service and Innovation at UK Power Networks told us that it is on-street and en-route charging that posed the greater challenge to DNOs building capacity.593

294.Stakeholders told us about issues and concerns around the current processes for and delays in upgrading distribution networks to support customer demand.594 We heard that where a grid connection requires an upgrade on the local network, this can be a time consuming, costly and administratively burdensome process for chargepoint operators.595

295.Witnesses said that these issues can be addressed through investing in grid upgrades ahead of demand.596 We heard from Richard Bruce that DNOs are now able to invest ahead of demand for technologies such as electric vehicles and heat pumps.597 In 2023, Ofgem made changes to the distribution network RIIO price control598 to incentivise networks to make investments in the network ahead of connection requests.599 The RIIO price controls set the revenues that the network operators can recover, the performance they must deliver and the investment they can make.600 It also provides incentives for DNOs to invest proactively where necessary.601 Under the current RIIO-ED2 price control (2023–2028), transmission and distribution network operators are investing a total of £31 billion across the transmission and distribution network infrastructure, an increase from the previous RIIO-ED1 period of £900 million a year.602 DNOs can plan proactive reinforcements to networks ahead of need by monitoring and modelling of their networks.603 As an example, RIIO-ED2 allows for National Grid Energy Distribution (the DNO for East and West Midlands, South West and Wales) to deliver £95 million of reinforcement works throughout the price control period of 2023–2028.604

296.Notwithstanding the investment allowed for by RIIO-ED2, we heard that it is insufficient to support investment in the reinforcements needed for EV charging and other local demands on the distribution network. Energy UK and SMMT told us that reformed regulatory frameworks from Ofgem are needed to commit to and enable justified anticipatory investments in local networks.605 SMMT said that investments should be focussed on strategic aims such as future-proofing charging for heavy duty vehicles and addressing locations where local networks are most constrained.606 Energy UK told us that “to our knowledge there is no requirement that DNOs utilise the net zero reopener process [part of the RIIO-ED2 price control], it is simply an additional tool for them to utilise if their existing funding is not sufficient to deliver for the local area”.607 Octopus told us that many DNOs are taking a ‘flex first’ approach to the RIIO-ED2 price control period which enables them to make best use of current network infrastructure and to defer investment where possible; UK Power Networks noted that building out and reinforcing all networks ahead of demand would be very expensive.608 Octopus also added that the growth in EV adoption is exponential, with the pressure on DNOs to meet connection requests likely to continue rising in the coming years and existing headroom running out around 2035.609

297.Beyond local networks to support EV chargepoints for residents, there are also issues with the grid upgrades required at high power sites such as motorway service areas and depots. As discussed in the earlier section on motorway charging, there is a significant gap to address with regards to upgrading grid connections at motorway service areas to support rapid and ultra rapid chargepoints. These locations are often remote with poor access to the grid and the costs to upgrade the local network to the required level such that they are no longer commercially viable for chargepoint operators.610

298.Roadchef, a motorway service operator managing 30 sites in Britain, stated that insufficient grid connections and power capacity along the strategic road network is holding up EV infrastructure rollout at motorway service areas.611 Roadchef reported that some of their sites have been told they are unable to gain additional power until after 2026, with one working on a current timeframe of 2032.612

299.Evri also noted that at present there are too few sites available with a high power allocation meaning that it is very difficult for businesses to shift to EVs as they require depots with high capacity grid connections and this is hindering the switch for business fleets.613 This also applies to large public charging hubs where the grid connectivity is unavailable and upgrades come with significant costs.614

300.We heard that developing strategic, fast-access routes to connection for critical projects of national importance such as EV infrastructure or those that are of significant economic value could address many of the delays currently experienced.615 This would allow DNOs to deliver sufficient anticipatory investments, a clear recommendation from stakeholders.616 Labelling critical infrastructure projects, such as EV infrastructure, as ‘Nationally Critical Infrastructure’ or similar with powers to fast-track projects of that type, could also help to prioritise charging infrastructure as an area of strategic importance.617

301.We note the changes made to the RIIO price control to allow for more anticipatory investment and emphasise that this additional investment is essential to support chargepoint deployment at pace. However, we heard concern that this may still be insufficient.

302.We recommend that the Government consult Ofgem and industry to identify opportunities to increase anticipatory investment in grid upgrades for the distribution network to future-proof local grids for the EV transition.

303.We recommend that the Government define and label grid upgrades to support chargepoint installations as ‘Nationally Critical Infrastructure’ projects and prioritise the grid upgrades needed to deliver EV infrastructure.

Further improvements to grid connection processes

304.Stakeholders noted that the current process to obtain grid connections and grid upgrades is both too costly and too complex, calling for the process to be standardised and streamlined.618 At present, some DNOs allow bulk applications to be made for several sites in one area but others do not. Allowing this across all DNOs would be useful.619 We heard that improved communication between DNOs, customers and other stakeholders in the planning process could have a significant impact. Informing a DNO early of chargepoint proposals can be a crucial step in minimising delays, and it is important that local authorities engage with DNOs at an early stage in the project planning process.620 Others noted that improvements are needed in how DNOs liaise and interact with landowners and local authorities to ensure connections proceed at pace.621

305.We also heard that planning reform could aid DNOs.622 The increase in connection applications requires a major uptick in cabling: we heard that 460,000km of additional cabling could be required by 2050.623 The Energy Networks Association also noted that the planning system as it relates to the building of electricity networks can be expensive and slow.624 At present, to facilitate grid connections in some rural locations, DNOs need to upgrade overhead powerlines to support local capacity.625 This may require increasing the number of powerlines from two to three. We heard that even when this solely involves laying additional cables over already existing pylons, this triggers the full planning and land rights process for the powerline.626 This can reportedly take up to five years when managing consenting across multiple landowners.627 This can be extended by a further 2-3 years if landowners do not reach a negotiated settlement for the land rights for the infrastructure.628

306.The Committee heard that under current planning regulations, the full planning and land rights process is triggered even for small amounts of upgrade work. This process can be further delayed if landowners do not reach a negotiated settlement. All of this can add significant delays to relatively straightforward upgrade work.

307.We recommend that the Government review the planning regulations for the upgrade of power lines and simplify the process where possible to speed up upgrades, particularly in rural communities while still ensuring proper protection of the environment and heritage.

Accessible data

308.We heard from stakeholders that at present, the process of obtaining grid connections is not transparent enough, nor is there sufficient data available across the network to support DNOs and chargepoint operators.

309.Stakeholders said that the Government should ensure that the right metrics were in place for Ofgem to monitor DNO progress effectively across the UK.629 We heard that establishing standards for open data, network monitoring and network connection processes would help in this regard.630

310.Self-service online tools provided by DNOs to allow and support indicative quotes during the planning phase would help customers to understand project viability.631 Some DNOs are pro-actively engaging with some of these issues by developing open data portals and more streamlined processes, but progress is patchy.632

311.The Energy Networks Association noted that DNOs often face challenges accessing necessary information on chargepoint installation.633 Simultaneously, we heard that many DNO customers do not fully understand the information being requested by DNOs or why it is needed.634 The British Vehicle Renting and Leasing Association suggested that harmonising administrative requirements, and explaining what information is needed and for what purpose, could resolve this issue.635

312.Greater powers for DNOs to plan the overall local system and to work more proactively with local authorities, rather than only responding to customer demand, could help to balance demand on infrastructure.636

313.We heard that DNOs and other stakeholders such as local authorities and chargepoint operators could benefit from improved data sharing, online tools to support the planning and permitting process and more pro-active engagement between DNOs and customers. The Government should explore what more it can do to facilitate this, for example by expanding on the support and guidance currently available through the LEVI support body.

254 Written evidence from Steve Huntingford (Editor at What Car? Magazine) (ELV0106)

255 Written evidence from Zouk Capital LLP (ELV0044)

256 Written evidence from Zouk Capital LLP (ELV0044), Carbon Copy (ELV0041), Dr Suresh Renukappa (Senior Lecturer at University of Wolverhampton), Miss Wahiba Erriadi (Researcher at University of Wolverhampton), Dr Subashini Suresh (Reader at University of Wolverhampton), and Professor Panagiotis Georgakis (Professor at University of Wolverhampton) (ELV0037)

258 Written evidence from Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) (ELV0117)

259 Written evidence from Connected Kerb (ELV0064) and Transport and Environment (ELV0035)

260 Written evidence from WSP (ELV0096), SMMT (ELV0117) and BMW (ELV0120)

261 Written evidence from the SMMT (ELV0117)

262 Department for Transport, Taking Charge: the electric vehicle infrastructure strategy (March 2022), p 9 https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/6245ba40e90e075f15381cf0/taking-charge-the-electric-vehicle-infrastructure-strategy.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024]

263 Ibid., p 38

264 Written evidence from the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (OZEV) (ELV0110)

265 HM Government, The Ten Point Plan for a Green Industrial Revolution (November 2020), p 14: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5fb5513de90e0720978b1a6f/10_POINT_PLAN_BOOKLET.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024]

267 Written evidence from Transport & Environment UK (ELV0035), Greenpeace UK (ELV0040), Energy UK (ELV0103)

269 Written evidence from Transport & Environment UK (ELV0035) and Energy UK (ELV0103)

270 Written evidence from Energy UK (ELV0103), Transport & Environment UK (ELV0035) and Greenpeace UK (ELV0040)

271 Written evidence from SMMT (ELV0117)

272 SMMT, Full throttle needed for UK automotive success (June 2021): https://www.smmt.co.uk/2021/06/full-throttle-needed-for-uk-automotive-success/ [accessed 12 January 2024]

273 Q 42 (Burmeister)

274 Department for Transport, Taking Charge: the electric vehicle infrastructure strategy (March 2022), p 38: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/6245ba40e90e075f15381cf0/taking-charge-the-electric-vehicle-infrastructure-strategy.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024]

275 Written evidence from SMMT (ELV0117)

276 Written evidence from Electrifying.com (ELV0075)

277 Written evidence from UK Power Networks (ELV0070) and Hertfordshire County Council (ELV0090)

278 Written evidence from the Competition and Markets Authority (ELV0072)

279 Written evidence from SMMT (ELV0117), Midlands Connect (ELV0085), Lancashire Enterprise Partnership (ELV0073) and West of England Combined Authority (ELV0130)

282 Written evidence from the Petrol Retailers Association (ELV0082)

284 74 (Dr Chris Pateman-Jones) and written evidence from London Councils (ELV0119)

285 Written evidence from the Association for Renewable Energy and Clean Technology (REA) (ELV0093)

286 Written evidence from SMMT (ELV0117), EDF (ELV0115), myenegi Ltd (ELV0095) and UK Power Networks (ELV0070)

289 Ibid.

291 Written evidence from Zapmap Ltd (ELV0102)

292 Zapmap, EV charging connector types, (November 2023) https://www.zap-map.com/ev-guides/connector-types [accessed 18 January 2024]

293 Written evidence from Zapmap Ltd (ELV0102)

294 Zapmap, EV charging connector types, (November 2023) https://www.zap-map.com/ev-guides/connector-types [accessed 18 January 2024]

295 Written evidence from Zouk Capital LLP (ELV0044) and Q 84 (Richard Bruce)

296 Written evidence from Zouk Capital LLP (ELV0044)

297 Written evidence from Stellantis (ELV0038), Energy UK (ELV0103), the UK Electric Fleet Coalition (UKEFC) (ELV0089) and Citizens Advice Bureau (ELV0116)

298 Written evidence from the Urban Transport Group (ELV0063)

299 Written evidence from Electrifying.com (ELV0075)

300 Written evidence from the Local Government Association (ELV0079)

301 Q 68 (Shamala Evans-Gadgil)

302 Written evidence from Transport & Environment UK (ELV0035), Carbon Copy (ELV0041), SSE (ELV0057), Transport for West Midlands (ELV0060), UK Power Networks (ELV0070), myenegi Ltd (ELV0095) and Q 67 (Peter Ollivere)

303 Written evidence from the Local Government Association (ELV0079)

304 Department for Transport, Taking Charge: the electric vehicle infrastructure strategy (March 2022), p 48; https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/6245ba40e90e075f15381cf0/taking-charge-the-electric-vehicle-infrastructure-strategy.pdf [accessed 29 January 2024], Department for Transport, ‘Electric vehicle charging infrastructure: help for local authorities’, (March 2022): https://www.gov.uk/guidance/electric-vehicle-charging-infrastructure-help-for-local-authorities [accessed 29 January 2024], written evidence from WSP (ELV0096) and Q 67 (Peter Ollivere)

305 Written evidence from the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (ELV0110)

306 Ibid.

307 Q 67 (Shamala Evans-Gadgil), written evidence from Connected Kerb (ELV0064), and the Local Government Association (ELV0079)

308 Q 67 (Shamala Evans Gadgil) and written evidence from Connected Kerb (ELV0064)

309 Written evidence from Connected Kerb (ELV0064)

310 Written evidence from London Councils (ELV0119)

312 Written evidence from Connected Kerb (ELV0064)

313 Written evidence from Transport & Environment UK (ELV0035) and the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (ELV0110)

314 Q 89 (Anthony Browne MP), written evidence from Transport & Environment UK (ELV0035), Energy Saving Trust, Local Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (LEVI) Capability Fund (February 2023) p 3: https://energysavingtrust.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/LEVI-Capability-Fund-Info-Pack.pdf. [accessed 26 January 2024]

315 Written evidence from the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (ELV0110), Q 84 (Anthony Browne MP) and Q 69 (Pateman-Jones)

316 Written evidence from London Councils (ELV0119), Midlands Connect (ELV0085), Connected Kerb (ELV0064)and Q 73 (Shamala Evans-Gadgil)

317 Written evidence from Midlands Connect (ELV0085)

318 Written evidence from the Local Government Association (ELV0079)

319 Written evidence from WSP (ELV0096)

320 Q 67 (Shamala Evans-Gadgil)

321 Written from London Councils (ELV0119)

322 Written evidence from Connected Kerb (ELV0064)

324 Written evidence from Ford Motor Company (ELV0086)

325 Q 69 (Chris Pateman-Jones)

326 Written evidence from the Local Government Association (ELV0079)

327 Written evidence from the Urban Transport Group (ELV0063)

328 Written evidence from the Local Government Association (ELV0079)

330 Q 69 (Evans Gadgil), written evidence from Greenpeace UK (ELV0040) and the Local Government Association (ELV0079)

331 Q 67 (Shamala Evans-Gadgil)

332 Q 67 (Shamala Evans-Gadgil) and Q 70 (Dr Chris Pateman-Jones)

333 Q 69 (Shamala Evans-Gadgil)

334 Written evidence from WSP (ELV0096)

335 Written evidence from the Urban Transport Group (ELV0063) and Midlands Connect (ELV0085)

336 Written evidence from WSP (ELV0096), London Councils (ELV0119), Midlands Connect (ELV0085)

337 Q 69 (Peter Ollivere)

338 Written evidence from WSP (ELV0096)

339 Written evidence from Connected Kerb (ELV0064)

340 Q 69 (Dr Chris Pateman-Jones), Q 69 (Shamala Evans-Gadgil), Q 68 (Shamala Evans-Gadgil) and written evidence from Transport for West Midlands (ELV0060)

341 Written evidence from Energy UK (ELV0103) and Q 69 (Dr Chris Pateman-Jones)

342 Q 69 (Dr Chris Pateman-Jones)

343 Written evidence from Carwow (ELV0084)

344 Written evidence from the Competition and Markets Authority (ELV0072)

345 Written evidence from the Urban Transport Group (ELV0063)

346 Energy Systems Catapult, Electric Vehicles: What will persuade the 30% of households without off-street parking to adopt electric vehicles? (April 2021): https://esc-production-2021.s3.eu-west-2.amazonaws.com/2021/07/What-will-persuade-households-without-off-street-parking-to-adopt-EVs-ESC-Report.docx.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024]

347 Written evidence from Zapmap Limited (ELV0102), Connected Kerb (ELV0064) and WSP (ELV0096)

348 Q 20 (Mike Hawes) and written evidence from Hertfordshire County Council (ELV0090)

349 Q 51 (Frank Burmeister)

350 Written evidence from Pod Point (ELV0101)

352 Written evidence from Hertfordshire County Council (ELV0090)

353 Written evidence from Zapmap Limited (ELV0102), Q 69 (Peter Ollivere) and Q 84 (Richard Bruce)

354 Written evidence from London Councils (ELV0119)

355 Ibid.

356 Written evidence from Mykos Technologies Ltd (ELV0034)

357 Written evidence from the Local Government Association (ELV0079)

358 Written evidence from Ford Motor Company (ELV0086), Connected Kerb (ELV0064), Nodum (ELV0036) and Auto Trader (ELV0094)

359 Written evidence from Pod Point (ELV0101)

360 Department for Transport, Taking Charge: the electric vehicle infrastructure strategy (March 2022), p 129: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/6245ba40e90e075f15381cf0/taking-charge-the-electric-vehicle-infrastructure-strategy.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024]

361 Ibid., p 38

362 Ibid., p 129, footnote 112

363 Written evidence from Auto Trader (ELV0094)

364 Written evidence from the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (ELV0110)

365 Ibid.

366 Ibid.

367 Written evidence from UK Power Networks (ELV0070), Department for Transport, Taking Charge: the electric vehicle infrastructure strategy (March 2022), p 8: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/6245ba40e90e075f15381cf0/taking-charge-the-electric-vehicle-infrastructure-strategy.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024]

368 Written evidence from Pod Point (ELV0101)

369 Written evidence from Auto Trader (ELV0094)

370 Written evidence from Peter Newson (ELV0008) and WSP (ELV0096)

371 Written evidence from Peter Newsom (ELV0008)

372 Written evidence from the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (ELV0110)

373 Ibid.

374 Ibid.

375 Written evidence from WSP (ELV0096)

376 Written evidence from Randal Lancelyn Green (ELV0019)

377 Written evidence from WSP (ELV0096)

378 Written evidence from Carbon Copy (ELV0041)

379 Written evidence from WSP (ELV0096) and Salvage Wire Limited (ELV0011)

380 The Strategic Road Network refers to the UK’s motorways and major A roads, equating to roughly 4,500 miles. For further information see National Highways, ‘Roads we manage’: https://nationalhighways.co.uk/our-roads/roads-we-manage/ [accessed 18 January 2024].

381 Written evidence from Transport & Environment UK (ELV0035), Electrifying.com (ELV0075) and Q 93 (Anthony Browne MP)

382 Written evidence from Transport & Environment UK (ELV0035)

383 HM Government, ‘Government vision for the rapid chargepoint network in England’ (May 2020): https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/government-vision-for-the-rapid-chargepoint-network-in-england/government-vision-for-the-rapid-chargepoint-network-in-england [accessed 18 January 2024]

384 BBC News, ‘Motorway electric charge point target missed, says RAC’ (2 January 2024): https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-67858961 [accessed 2 January 2024]

385 Office for Zero Emission Vehicles and Department for Transport, ‘Rapid Charging Fund’ (September 2021): https://www.gov.uk/guidance/rapid-charging-fund [accessed 18 January 2024]

386 Written evidence from the Finance and Leasing Association (ELV0111),Office for Zero Emission Vehicles and Department for Transport, ‘Rapid Charging Fund’ (September 2021): https://www.gov.uk/guidance/rapid-charging-fund [accessed 18 January 2024]

387 House of Commons Library, ‘Going the distance: Are motorways ready for more electric vehicles?’, June 2023 https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/going-the-distance-are-motorways-ready-for-more-electric-vehicles/ [accessed 18 January 2024]

389 Q 93 (Anthony Browne MP and Richard Bruce)

390 Q 93 (Richard Bruce)

391 Office for Zero Emission Vehicles and Department for Transport, ‘Rapid Charging Fund’ (September 2021): https://www.gov.uk/guidance/rapid-charging-fund [accessed 18 January 2024]

392 Written evidence from the Finance and Leasing Association (ELV0111)

393 Written evidence from the National Grid (ELV0118), Roadchef (ELV0100), EDF (ELV0115) and Pod Point (ELV0101)

394 Q 84 (Anthony Browne MP) and. Q 93 (Bruce)

395 Office for Zero Emissions Vehicles and Department for Transport, ‘Transport Secretary announces £70 million boost for more rapid electric vehicle chargers at COP28’, (December 2023): https://www.gov.uk/government/news/transport-secretary-announces-70-million-boost-for-more-rapid-electric-vehicle-chargers-at-cop28 [accessed 18 January 2024]

396 Office for Zero Emissions Vehicles and Department for Transport, ‘Rapid charging fund: scheme design’, (December 2023): https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/rapid-charging-fund-scheme-design [accessed 18 January 2024]

397 Written evidence from SSE (ELV0057)

398 Written evidence from the National Grid (ELV0118)

399 Written evidence from SMMT (ELV0117)

400 Q 18 (Mike Hawes), Q 38 (Melanie Shufflebotham), Q 74 (Shamala Evans-Gadgil) and written evidence from Pod Point (ELV0101)

401 Written evidence from the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (ELV0110)

402 Written evidence from ChargeUK (ELV0135)

403 Written evidence from SMMT (ELV0117), Allen Gilbey (ELV0027) and SSE (ELV0057)

404 Written evidence from SMMT (ELV0117)

405 Written evidence from SMMT (ELV0117), Shell UK (ELV0055), and Hertfordshire County Council (ELV0090)

406 Written evidence from WSP (ELV0096)

408 Q 86 (Richard Bruce)

409 Ibid.

410 Written evidence from the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (ELV0110)

411 Department for Transport, The plan for drivers (October 2023), p 24: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/651fe3022548ca000dddee82/the-plan-for-drivers.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024]

412 HC Deb, 13 December 2023, col 742

413 Written evidence from WSP (ELV0096) and the Urban Transport Group (ELV0063)

414 Written evidence from myenegi Ltd (ELV0095), T Salmon (ELV0006) 74 (Peter Ollivere and Shamala Evans-Gadgil)

415 Q 74 and written evidence from Hertfordshire County Council (ELV0090)

417 Q 74 and written evidence from WSP (ELV0096)

418 Department for Transport, The plan for drivers (October 2023), pp 24–25 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/plan-for-drivers/the-plan-for-drivers [accessed 18 January 2024]

419 Ibid., p 25

420 Written evidence from DLUHC (ELV0142)

421 Written evidence from DLUHC (ELV0142)

422 This was updated in July 2023 after consultation to clarify that this permitted development rights also applies to bodies working on behalf of the local authority , such as CPOs.

423 72 (Shamala Evans-Gadgil)

424 Ibid.

425 Q 30 (Ian Johnston)

426 Written evidence from ChargeUK (ELV0076) and The Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development and Use Classes) (Scotland) Miscellaneous Amendment Order 2023 (SI2021/35)

427 Written evidence from DLUHC (ELV0142)

429 Written evidence from ChargeUK (ELV0135)

430 Written evidence from Hertfordshire County Council (ELV0090)

431 Written evidence from the Association for Renewable Energy and Clean Technology (REA) (ELV0093) and ChargeUK (ELV0135)

432 Department for Transport, Reform of Traffic Regulation Orders (March 2022), p 5: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/6225f74c8fa8f54910242291/consultation-on-reform-of-traffic-regulation-orders.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024]

433 Department for Transport, Reform of Traffic Regulation Orders (March 2022): https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/6225f74c8fa8f54910242291/consultation-on-reform-of-traffic-regulation-orders.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024]

435 Ibid.

436 Ibid.

437 Q 67 (Shamala Evans-Gadgil)

438 Highways Act 1980, Section 115B

439 Q 67 (Shamala Evans-Gadgil), written evidence from Connected Kerb (ELV0064) and ChargeUK (ELV0135)

440 Q 67 (Dr Chris Pateman-Jones)

442 Q 32 (Ian Johnston and Steve Gooding), written evidence from WSP (ELV0096) SSE (ELV0057), and ChargeUK (ELV0135)

443 Q 67 (Shamala Evans-Gadgil)

444 Written evidence from ChargeUK (ELV0135)

446 Ibid.

447 HM Government, The Building Regulations 2010: Approved Document S: Infrastructure for the charging of electric vehicles (December 2021): https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/6218c5d38fa8f54911e22263/AD_S.pdf [accessed 29 January 2024]

448 Written evidence from the Local Government Association (ELV0079)

449 Q 78 (Anthony Browne MP)

450 Written evidence from the Local Government Association (ELV0079)

451 Written evidence from Pod Point (ELV0101)

452 Ibid.

453 Written evidence from the Association of British Insurers (ELV0080)

454 Written evidence from Robin Brundle (Executive Chairman at Technology Minerals Plc) (ELV0139)

455 Written evidence from Greenpeace UK (ELV0040)

456 Written evidence from Green Alliance (ELV0099) and London Councils (ELV0119)

457 Written evidence from Transport for West Midlands (TfWM) (ELV0060)

458 Written evidence from Electrifying.com (ELV0075)

459 Written evidence from Zouk Capital LLP (ELV0044)

460 Ibid.

461 Ibid.

462 Ibid.

463 Because a gallon of petrol is not the same as a kWh of electricity, Zouk Capital LLP converted all figures to pence per mile for comparison using efficiencies of 36 miles per gallon and 3.5 miles per kWh. The figures of 7p/kWh and 25p/kWh are defined as “home” which is a typical range of figures from suppliers such as Octopus, EDF and EON. “Public – slow” are 7-22kw chargers found on-street and at long duration stops i.e., train stations, supermarkets and shopping centres, whilst “public – rapid” are 50kw+ EV chargers typically found on busy A-roads, drive-thru coffee shops and motorway services areas. At the time of submission the Government’s own data indicated petrol was almost 152p/litre. For further information, see: written evidence from Zouk Capital LLP (ELV0044).

464 Written evidence from SMMT (ELV0117). The sample size of the research quoted was 2,375 adults online in the UK who were filtered by those who have access to a car. Interviews conducted between 1–8 September 2023.

465 Written evidence from Transport & Environment UK (ELV0035)

466 Written evidence from Auto Trader (ELV0094)

467 Ibid.

468 Written evidence from Octopus Electric Vehicles (ELV0087)

469 Written evidence from Pod Point (ELV0101)

470 Written evidence from Steve Huntingford (Editor at What Car? Magazine) (ELV0106)

471 Written evidence from the Mayor of London (joint response from Transport for London and the Greater London Authority) (ELV0121)

472 Letter from the Chair to Lord Callanan, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Energy Security and Net Zero, 22 February 2023: https://committees.parliament.uk/publications/34006/documents/187196/default/

473 Competition and Markets Authority, ‘CMA publishes emerging analysis from Road Fuel Market Study’, (December 2022): https://www.gov.uk/government/news/cma-publishes-emerging-analysis-from-road-fuel-market-study [accessed 29 January 2024]

474 National Audit Office, Reducing carbon emissions from cars (February 2021), p 38: https://www.nao.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Reducing-Carbon-Emissions-from-cars.pdf, cited in written evidence from UK Power Networks (ELV0070)

475 Written evidence from Urban Transport Group (ELV0063)

476 Written evidence from Auto Trader (ELV0094)

477 Written evidence from Anonymous (ELV0003), David Willis (ELV0025)

478 Written evidence from Pod Point (ELV0101)

479 Written evidence from T Salmon (ELV0006), the Urban Transport Group (ELV0063), Green Alliance (ELV0099), Lancashire Enterprise Partnership (ELV0073), Douglas Robertson (ELV0015), Zouk Capital LLP (ELV0044), Connected Kerb (ELV0064), Pod Point (ELV0101) and London Councils (ELV0119)

480 Written evidence from Pod Point (ELV0101)

483 Written evidence from the Local Government Association (ELV0079)

484 Written evidence from the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (ELV0110)

485 Zapmap, ‘Zapmap Price Index’: https://www.zap-map.com/ev-stats/charging-price-index [accessed 18 December 2023]

486 The initial prices used for the calculation are from the ‘Zapmap Price Index’: https://www.zap-map.com/ev-stats/charging-price-index: 55p/kWh for Slow/Fast charging and 80p/kWh for Rapid charging (correct as of 12 December 2023). Calculations to amend the VAT were to first remove 20% VAT from the cost: 80/1.2=66.6p for rapid charging and 55/1.2=45.8p. The figures were then multiplied by 1.05 to calculate 5% VAT 66.6*1.05=70p and 45.8*1.05=48.1p.

487 Written evidence from Electrifying.com (ELV0075)

488 Written evidence from Zouk Capital LLP (ELV0044) and Electrifying.com (ELV0075)

489 Energy Saving Trust, ‘Smart charging for electric vehicles’ (Updated 15 January 2024]: https://energysavingtrust.org.uk/advice/smart-charging-electric-vehicles/ [accessed 18 January 2024]

490 Written evidence from EDF (ELV0115)

491 Ibid.

492 Ibid.

493 Department for Transport, Electric Vehicle Smart Charging: Government Response to the 2019 Consultation on Electric Vehicle Smart Charging (July 2021): https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/61324b3ce90e070447ef61ce/electric-vehicle-smart-charging-government-response.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024]

495 Ibid.

496 Written evidence from Shell (ELV0055)

497 Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Plan (January 2023), p 46: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1129728/electric-vehicle-smart-charging-action-plan.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024]

498 Written evidence from Energy UK (ELV0103)

499 Written evidence from the Association for Decentralised Energy (ELV0053) and Octopus Electric Vehicles (ELV0087)

500 Ibid.

501 Written evidence from Octopus Electric Vehicles (ELV0087)

502 Written evidence from the Association for Decentralised Energy (ELV0053) and Octopus Electric Vehicles (ELV0087)

504 Written evidence from the Association for Decentralised Energy (ELV0053), the RAC (ELV0078) and Mykos Technologies Ltd (ELV0034)

505 Written evidence from EDF (ELV0115), Citizens Advice Bureau (ELV0116), Zouk Capital LLP (ELV0044), SMMT (ELV0117), Transport for West Midlands (ELV0060), the Urban Transport Group (ELV0063) and Lancashire Enterprise Partnership (ELV0073)

506 Written evidence from Energy UK (ELV0103) and the Association for Decentralised Energy (ELV0053)

507 Written evidence from the Association for Decentralised Energy (ELV0053) and Statista, ‘Electricity generation capacity of major power producers in the United Kingdom in 2021’: https://www.statista.com/statistics/496283/total-electricity-generation-capacity-uk/ [accessed 29 January 2024]

508 Written evidence from Energy UK (ELV0103)

509 Written evidence from Association of Decentralised Energy (ELV0053) and EDF (ELV0115)

510 Cited in written evidence from the Association for Decentralised Energy (ELV0053)

511 Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and Ofgem,’ New plan for smart electric vehicle (EV) charging could save consumers up to £1000 a year’, (17 January 2023): https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-plan-for-smart-electric-vehicle-ev-charging-could-save-consumers-up-to-1000-a-year [accessed 18 January 2024]

512 Written evidence from SSE (ELV0057), Octopus Electric Vehicles (ELV0087) and the Urban Transport Group (ELV0063)

513 Octopus Electric Vehicles (ELV0087), UK Power Networks (ELV0070) and the Association for Renewable Energy and Clean Technology (REA) (ELV0093)

515 Department for Energy Security and Net Zero, ‘V2X Innovation Programme’, (Updated 21 March 2023) https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/v2x-innovation-programme [accessed 18 January 2024]

516 Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Plan (January 2023). p 9: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1129728/electric-vehicle-smart-charging-action-plan.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024]

517 Written evidence from the RAC (ELV0078)

518 Written evidence from Andy Wilson (ELV0013), Mark Garnett (ELV0016), Allen Gilbey (ELV0027) and Robin Roberts (ELV0031)

519 Written evidence from Allen Gilbey (ELV0027) and Kieran Smith (ELV0032)

520 Written evidence from Allen Gilbey (ELV0027)

521 The Public Charge Point Regulations 2023 (SI 2023/1168)

522 Written evidence from Citizens Advice Bureau (ELV0116) and SMMT (ELV0117)

523 Written evidence from WSP (ELV0096)

524 Q 36 (Johnston, Shufflebotham, Gooding), the Electric Vehicle Association (EVA) Scotland (ELV0039), the UK Electric Fleet Coalition (UKEFC) (ELV0089), ELV0096 WSP, EDF (ELV0115), the Mayor of London (joint response from Transport for London and the Greater London Authority) (ELV0121) and the Association of British Insurers (ELV0080)

525 Written evidence from the RAC (ELV0078)

526 Written evidence from Carwow (ELV0084)

527 Written evidence from SMMT (ELV0117)

528 Written evidence from Transport & Environment UK (ELV0035) and the British Vehicle Rental & Leasing Association (BVRLA) (ELV0054)

529 Written evidence from SMMT (ELV0117)

530 Written evidence from Transport & Environment UK (ELV0035), the British Vehicle Rental & Leasing Association (BVRLA) (ELV0054) and SMMT (ELV0117)

531 The Public Charge Point Regulations 2023 (SI2023/1168)

532 Written evidence from Anonymous (ELV0003), and Andy Wilson (ELV0013)

533 Written evidence from Mykos Technologies Ltd (ELV0034)

534 Written evidence from SMMT (ELV0117)

535 Written evidence from Shell UK (ELV0055) and Q 26 (Melanie Shufflebotham)

537 Written evidence from Zouk Capital LLP (ELV0044)

538 Written evidence from Zouk Capital LLP (ELV0044) and Q 37 (Ian Johnston)

539 Written evidence from Zapmap Limited (ELV0102) and Q 37 (Ian Johnston)

540 Written evidence from the Motability Foundation (ELV0077), Disabled Motoring UK (ELV0018), SSE (ELV0057), UK Power Networks (ELV0070), and the Electric Vehicle Association (EVA) England (ELV0062)

541 Written evidence from Disabled Motoring UK (ELV0018)

542 Written evidence from Disabled Motoring UK (ELV0018)

543 Ibid.

544 Written evidence from the Motability Foundation (ELV0077)

545 British Standards Institute, PAS1899: 2022 - Electric Vehicles - Accessible charging - Specification, (2022) https://www.bsigroup.com/globalassets/documents/about-bsi/nsb/cpin/s20282_bsi_ev-charge-points-002.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024]

546 British Standards Institute, PAS1899: 2022 - Electric Vehicles - Accessible charging - Specification, (2022) https://www.bsigroup.com/globalassets/documents/about-bsi/nsb/cpin/s20282_bsi_ev-charge-points-002.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024] and written evidence from the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (ELV0110)

547 British Standards Institute, PAS1899: 2022 - Electric Vehicles - Accessible charging - Specification, (2022) https://www.bsigroup.com/globalassets/documents/about-bsi/nsb/cpin/s20282_bsi_ev-charge-points-002.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024]

548 Written evidence from the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (ELV0110)

549 Written evidence from Transport & Environment UK (ELV0035), SMMT (ELV0117) and Greenpeace UK (ELV0040)

550 Written evidence from WSP (ELV0096) and SSE (ELV0057)

551 Written evidence from Pod Point (ELV0101)

552 National Grid, ‘What’s the difference between electricity transmission and distribution?’ https://www.nationalgrid.com/stories/energy-explained/electricity-transmission-vs-electricity-distribution [accessed 29 January 2024], written evidence from the National Grid (ELV0118)

553 Ibid.

554 Ibid.

555 Written evidence from the Urban Transport Group (ELV0063)

556 House of Commons Library, Electric vehicles and infrastructure, Research Briefing, CBP 7480, 21 February 2023

557 Written evidence from SMMT (ELV0117)

559 Ibid.

560 Written evidence from EDF (ELV0115), BMW (ELV0120), Energy UK (ELV0103), Greenpeace UK (ELV0040), the Energy Networks Association (ELV0049) and the Association for Renewable Energy and Clean Technology (REA) (ELV0093)

561 Written evidence from Transport & Environment UK (ELV0035), the Electric Vehicle Association (EVA) Scotland (ELV0039), Energy UK (ELV0103) and Q 95 (Richard Bruce)

562 Written evidence from WSP (ELV0096), Evri (ELV0067) and the Petrol Retailers Association (ELV0082)

563 Written evidence from EDF (ELV0115)

564 Written evidence from Energy UK (ELV0103)

565 Department for Energy Security and Net Zero, ‘Accelerating electricity transmission network deployment: Electricity Networks Commissioner’s recommendations’, (August 2023): https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/accelerating-electricity-transmission-network-deployment-electricity-network-commissioners-recommendations [accessed 18 January 2024]

566 Ofgem, ‘Ofgem announces tough new policy to clear ‘zombie projects, and cut wating time for energy grid connection’, (November 2023): https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/publications/ofgem-announces-tough-new-policy-clear-zombie-projects-and-cut-waiting-time-energy-grid-connection [accessed 18 January 2024]

567 Ofgem, ‘Ofgem welcomes focus on grid connections and transmission network build in Autumn Statement’, (November 2023): https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/publications/ofgem-welcomes-focus-grid-connections-and-transmission-network-build-autumn-statement [accessed 18 January 2024]

568 Ofgem, ‘Ofgem welcomes focus on grid connections and transmission network build in Autumn Statement’, (November 2023): https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/publications/ofgem-welcomes-focus-grid-connections-and-transmission-network-build-autumn-statement [accessed 18 January 2024]

569 Written evidence from the National Grid (ELV0118)

570 Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, ‘Plans unveiled to decarbonise UK power system by 2035’, (October 2021): https://www.gov.uk/government/news/plans-unveiled-to-decarbonise-uk-power-system-by-2035 [accessed 18 January 2024]

571 Climate Change Committee, ‘A reliable, secure and decarbonised power system by 2035 is possible, but not at this pace of delivery’, (9 March 2023): https://www.theccc.org.uk/2023/03/09/a-reliable-secure-and-decarbonised-power-system-by-2035-is-possible-but-not-at-this-pace-of-delivery/ [accessed 18 January 2024]

572 Written evidence from the National Grid (ELV0118)

573 Climate Change Committee, ‘A reliable, secure and decarbonised power system by 2035 is possible, but not at this pace of delivery’, (9 March 2023): https://www.theccc.org.uk/2023/03/09/a-reliable-secure-and-decarbonised-power-system-by-2035-is-possible-but-not-at-this-pace-of-delivery/ [accessed 18 January 2024]

574 Written evidence from the National Grid (ELV0118)

575 National Grid, ‘National Grid sets out case for urgent reform to drive the energy transition’, (15 May 2023): https://www.nationalgrid.com/national-grid-sets-out-urgent-reform-energy-transition [accessed 18 January 2024]

576 Written evidence from the National Grid (ELV0118)

577 Written evidence from WSP (ELV0096)

578 Written evidence from Transport for West Midlands (ELV0060)

579 Written evidence from UK Power Networks (ELV0070)

580 Written evidence from Energy UK (ELV0103), the Urban Transport Group (ELV0063) and the National Grid (ELV0118)

581 Q 86 (Anthony Browne MP)

582 Written evidence from the Energy Networks Association (ELV0049)

583 Written evidence from SSE (ELV0057) and Lancashire Enterprise Partnership (ELV0073)

584 Written evidence from the National Grid (ELV0118)

585 Written evidence from London Councils (ELV0119)

586 Ibid.

587 Written evidence from Shell UK (ELV0055) and the Association for Renewable Energy and Clean Technology (REA) (ELV0093)

588 Written evidence from Shell UK (ELV0055)

589 Written evidence from the National Grid (ELV0118)

590 Ibid.

591 Written evidence from the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (ELV0110)

592 Department for Energy Security and Net Zero and Ofgem, Connections Action Plan: Speeding up connections to the electricity network across Great Britain (November 2023): https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/655dd873d03a8d001207fe56/connections-action-plan.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024]

593 Q 75 (Cameron)

594 Written evidence from Anthony McClennon (ELV0012), WSP (ELV0096), Ford Motor Company (ELV0086) and Transport & Environment UK (ELV0035)

595 Written evidence from Transport & Environment UK (ELV0035) and SSE (ELV0057)

596 Written evidence from Energy UK (ELV0103), EDF (ELV0115) and SMMT (ELV0117)

598 RIIO (which stands for Revenue=Incentives+Innovation+Outputs) is Ofgem’s framework for setting price controls. In the electricity market, this price control relates to DNOs. RIIO is intended to encourage companies to invest efficiently and innovate to reduce network costs. For further information see: Ofgem, Price controls explained (March 2013): https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/sites/default/files/docs/2013/03/price_control_explained_march13_web.pdf [accessed 18 January 2024]

599 Written evidence from the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (ELV0110)

600 Ibid.

601 Written evidence from UK Power Networks (ELV0070)

602 Written evidence from the Energy Networks Association (ELV0049) and the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (ELV0110)

603 Written evidence from the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (ELV0110)

604 Written evidence from the National Grid (ELV0118)

605 Written evidence from Energy UK (ELV0103), SMMT (ELV0117) and further supplementary written evidence from Energy UK (ELV0148)

606 Written evidence from SMMT (ELV0117)

607 Further supplementary written evidence from Energy UK (ELV0148)

608 Written evidence from Octopus Electric Vehicles (ELV0087)

609 Ibid.

610 Q 93 (Anthony Browne MP)

611 Written evidence from Roadchef (ELV0100)

612 Ibid.

613 Written evidence from Evri (ELV0067)

614 Written evidence from Ford Motor Company (ELV0086)

615 Written evidence from the National Grid (ELV0118) and Transport for West Midlands (ELV0060)

616 Written evidence from SMMT (ELV0117), EDF (ELV0115) and Energy UK (ELV0103)

617 Written evidence from the Association for Renewable Energy and Clean Technology (REA) (ELV0093)

618 Written evidence from Evri (ELV0067), the UK Electric Fleet Coalition (UKEFC) (ELV0089), the British Vehicle Rental & Leasing Association (BVRLA) (ELV0054) and Q 40 (Dr Russell Fowler)

619 BVRLA (ELV0054), WSP (ELV0096)

620 Q 75 (Ian Cameron)

621 Written evidence from WSP (ELV0096)

622 Q 25 (Dr Russell Fowler) and written evidence from the Energy Networks Association (ELV0049)

623 Written evidence from the Energy Networks Association (ELV0049)

624 Written evidence from the Energy Networks Association (ELV0049) and Q 25 (Dr Russell Fowler)

625 Written evidence from Ian Cameron (Director of Innovation and Customer Service at UK Power Networks) (ELV0138)

626 Written evidence from the Energy Networks Association (ELV0049)

627 Written evidence from the Energy Networks Association (ELV0049) and Ian Cameron (Director of Innovation and Customer Service at UK Power Networks) (ELV0138)

628 Written evidence from the Energy Networks Association (ELV0049)

629 Written evidence from Citizens Advice Bureau (ELV0116)

630 Written evidence from Citizens Advice Bureau (ELV0116), Energy UK (ELV0103), the Urban Transport Group (ELV0063) and Q 75 (Ian Cameron)

631 Written evidence from WSP (ELV0096)

632 Written evidence from UK Power Networks (ELV0070)

633 Written evidence from the Energy Networks Association (ELV0049)

634 Written evidence from the BVRLA (ELV0054) and WSP (ELV0096)

635 Written evidence from the BVRLA (ELV0054)

636 Written evidence from the Urban Transport Group (ELV0063)

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