6.The first Erasmus (European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students) programme was established in 1987 to give higher education students the opportunity to spend part of their studies abroad. In its first year, the programme involved 11 countries and had 3,244 participants. Over time, the initiative has evolved and expanded and the current ‘Erasmus+’ programme is open to a range of participants involved in ‘lifelong learning’: higher education, vocational education and training (VET), school and adult education, youth, and sport. There are now 33 Erasmus+ programme countries and the initiative supported 725,000 ‘mobilities’ in 2016.
7.Erasmus+ runs for the Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) period 2014–2020. It aims to support national efforts and enhance opportunities for international cooperation and mobility in the fields of education, training, youth, and sport, and brings together all previous EU initiatives in these fields, including Erasmus, Youth in Action, Jean Monnet, Edulink, and Erasmus Mundus.
8.Participation in Erasmus+ is open to countries within the EU and beyond on a ‘Programme country’ or ‘Partner country’ basis. Programme countries—the EU Member States plus Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Turkey, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia—are subject to all the obligations and requirements of Regulation 1288/2013 and can take part fully in all actions of the Erasmus+ programme. Partner countries participate in Erasmus+ on a more limited basis—subject to specific criteria or conditions—and include, among others, the Western Balkans and Eastern Partnership countries, the Russian Federation, and Switzerland.
9.The European Commission has ultimate responsibility for Erasmus+—managing the programme budget, setting priorities, targets and application criteria, and monitoring project follow-up and evaluation—but most actions are implemented at the national level. These are known as ‘decentralised activities’, with applications and awards managed by a network of National Agencies overseen by responsible government departments (National Authorities). Various ‘centralised activities’—such as the Sport chapter, Jean Monnet higher education programme, and Erasmus Mundus Joint Master’s Degrees—are managed at the European level by the Commission’s Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency.
10.With a budget of €16.45 billion for the programme period, Erasmus+ aims to reach over four million people through study, training, work experience, or volunteering abroad. Funding is distributed through annual Calls for Proposals, which detail available grants and application criteria according to the type of activity (see Box 1) and sector of the applicant organisation. These sectors include higher education, schools, adult education, VET, and youth.
Key Action 1: Mobility
Teach or train abroad
Key Action 2: Strategic partnerships
Organisations across the fields of education, training, youth, and sport can apply for up to €150,000 per year to develop international partnerships to share best practice and work collaboratively to improve and modernise practice and provision.
Key Action 3: Policy development
Organisations can apply for funding of up to €50,000 per project to run structured dialogue projects (which can last from three to 24 months) to bring young people and decision-makers together to inform the development of youth policy.
11.The Commission brought forward a draft Regulation to establish Erasmus in the 2021–2027 MFF period in May 2018. The 2021–2027 programme would maintain the same basic structure as Erasmus+—with three Key Actions focused on mobility, cooperation, and policy development—but the Commission envisages a substantial expansion of activities, with a total budget of €30 billion and an ambition to reach up to 12 million participants over the programme period.
12.The proposal aims to respond to some of the concerns highlighted in the Erasmus+ mid-term evaluation, including:
13.To address these issues, the proposal outlines plans to:
Efforts will be made to reduce the administrative burden for small organisations and new participants, and to streamline application criteria and monitoring and evaluation indicators.
14.The 2021–2027 Erasmus programme will also aim to “intensify international mobility and cooperation with third countries”. Article 16 of the proposal sets out how third countries may negotiate association agreements to take part fully in the new programme, provided they comply with the conditions of their agreement and fulfil the same obligations imposed by the Regulation on EU Member States. Article 16 further specifies that third country association agreements must:
The proposed Regulation also provides for participation on a more limited basis for “third countries not associated to the programme” (Article 17).
15.Since it was published, the 2021–2027 Erasmus programme proposal has been considered by various Committees of the European Parliament, and by the Council. Negotiations are expected to conclude before the European Parliament elections in 2019, although budget-related matters will form part of wider negotiations on the next MFF.
16.Research funding at a European level has existed since the foundation of the European Economic Community. It focused initially on coal, steel and atomic energy projects, but subsequently expanded into new areas until the 1980s, when the decision was taken to rationalise research funding under a single framework. The First Framework Programme for research ran from 1984–1987 and had a budget of €3.3 billion. Since this time, the EU’s research framework programmes have continued to evolve and expand, and transnational cooperation has been extended to an increasing number of non-EU countries.
17.Horizon 2020 is the EU’s Framework Programme for research and innovation for the MFF period 2014–2020. It has a total budget of nearly €80 billion and aims to secure Europe’s global competitiveness by driving economic growth and creating jobs.
18.Horizon 2020 is structured around two-year work programmes, developed by the Commission, which detail specific priorities and funding areas for that period. Competitive calls for proposals are issued under three programme priorities (or ‘pillars’, see Box 2), with varying funding criteria, including scientific excellence, alignment with strategic objectives, geographical and disciplinary diversity, and potential for commercialisation. European Research Council (ERC) grants are awarded solely on the basis of excellence, with no thematic priorities or geographical quotas.
This priority aims to reinforce and extend the excellence of the EU’s science base and consolidate the European Research Area through four specific objectives:
This priority aims to help innovative European SMEs grow into world-leading companies through three specific objectives:
This priority responds to the policy priorities and societal challenges identified in the Europe 2020 strategy and focuses funding on the following objectives:
Source: Regulation (EU) No 1291/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 establishing Horizon 2020 - the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (2014–2020) and repealing Decision No 1982/2006/EC, (20 December 2013)
19.A network of National Contact Points—national structures established by the governments of EU Member States and associated third countries—provides guidance, practical information, and assistance to current and potential participants on all aspects of Horizon 2020.
20.Article 7 of the Regulation establishing Horizon 2020 sets out provisions for association to the programme by acceding countries, candidate and potential candidate countries, and selected third countries that fulfil the following criteria:
(a)They have a good capacity in science, technology and innovation;
(b)They have a good track record of participation in EU research and innovation programmes;
(c)They have close economic and geographical links to the EU; and
(d)They are EFTA members, or countries or territories listed in the Annex to the Regulation establishing a European Neighbourhood Instrument.
Broadly, association enables entities from associated third countries to participate in Horizon 2020 under the same conditions as entities from Member States. Specific terms and conditions for each country, including their financial contributions, are determined in individual association agreements. Associated countries can participate, but not vote, in strategic planning discussions.
21.Outside of association, institutions and researchers from third countries may access Horizon 2020 funding under some programme themes if:
Depending on the scheme, third countries have to provide national funding for their participants in Horizon 2020 projects.
22.The EU framework programme for innovation and research in 2021–2027 will be called ‘Horizon Europe’. The proposal for a Regulation to establish Horizon Europe was published in June 2018. As with Erasmus, the proposal for Horizon Europe aims to build on and scale up the achievements of its predecessor. Its proposed budget is around €100 billion for the programme period.
23.Horizon Europe will maintain a three-pillar structure, complemented by underpinning activities (see Figure 1).
24.The proposal for Horizon Europe aims to address issues identified in the interim evaluation of Horizon 2020, including simplifying the funding rules to reduce the administrative burden on grant recipients and increasing collaboration with other EU programmes and policies, such as the EU Cohesion Policy, Digital Europe programme, and Connecting Europe Facility. A further objective is to strengthen international cooperation by promoting the participation of third countries and international organisations.
25.Article 12 of the proposed Regulation sets out conditions for third country association to Horizon Europe, which are more detailed than those for Horizon 2020. Third countries must fulfil the following criteria:
(a)a good capacity in science, technology and innovation;
(b)commitment to a rules-based open market economy, including fair and equitable dealing with intellectual property rights, backed by democratic institutions;
(c)active promotion of policies to improve the economic and social well-being of citizens.
26.The basic requirements of Horizon Europe association agreements mirror those of the 2021–2027 Erasmus programme (see para 14), but Horizon Europe agreements must also take into account the objective of driving economic growth in the EU and ensure a balance of financial contributions and receipts. On the latter, Article 12(4) of the proposal specifies:
“The conditions determining the level of financial contribution shall ensure an automatic correction of any significant imbalance compared to the amount that entities established in the associated country receive through participation in the Programme, taking into account the costs in the management, execution and operation of the Programme.”
27.Article 19 of the proposal specifies that ‘non-associated’ third countries should in principle bear the cost of their participation in Horizon Europe. However, low to middle income countries and, exceptionally, other third countries could be eligible for funding if the third country is identified in the work programme adopted by the Commission, or, if the Commission considers their participation essential for implementing the action.
28.As with Erasmus, the Commission hopes to conclude negotiations on Horizon Europe before the European elections in May 2019.
29.Erasmus+ in the UK is managed by the UK National Agency: a partnership between the British Council and Ecorys UK. The Department for Education is the UK’s National Authority. Almost €1 billion is expected to be allocated to UK projects over the lifetime of the Erasmus+ programme. Since the programme began, 4,796 UK projects have been awarded €677 million in Erasmus+ funding and 128,097 participants took part in activities under Key Actions 1 and 3 between 2014 and 2016. A further €187 million will be available to UK organisations through the 2019 Erasmus+ funding round.
30.The majority of Erasmus+ funding in the UK to date (72%) has been awarded under Key Action 1, and more than half of this sum has supported mobility in higher education. It is unsurprising, therefore, that university student mobility remains the most high-profile aspect of the Erasmus programme and that it dominated the discussion in evidence to this inquiry. Nonetheless—as many of our witnesses were keen to emphasise—Erasmus+ funding in the UK has also supported exchanges for other groups, including €114.3 million for vocational education and training, €43.8 million for youth, €19.8 million for schools, and €5.2 million for adult education. UK Key Action 2 (strategic partnerships) and Key Action 3 (structured dialogue) projects have been awarded €183.6 million and €2.7 million respectively.
31.Witnesses to this inquiry were overwhelmingly positive about the impact of Erasmus+ and its predecessor programmes. The University of Aberdeen, for example, told us:
“That the programme is an overwhelming force for good is undisputed. Erasmus consistently ranks as one of the most important achievements of the EU.”
32.Various witnesses highlighted the growing popularity of Erasmus+ in the UK over recent years. For example, 15,645 students from UK universities spent a period abroad through the programme in 2015–16 compared to 14,801 in 2014–15. The Erasmus+ UK National Agency anticipated a significant increase in these numbers in the future, in light of the Commission’s proposal to substantially increase the budget of the 2021–2027 Erasmus programme.
33.Gail Armistead, Associate Director of the Office of Global Engagement at the University of Nottingham, and representing the Russell Group, told us that students were “looking to be as European as possible and [saw] mobility and opportunities to go and study or work in Europe as vital”. Amatey Doku, Vice President (Higher Education) at the National Union of Students (NUS), said that Erasmus came at “the top of the list … [of] substantive issues that our students care about” in the context of Brexit. Mr Doku also pointed to the long-term benefit of international mobility for post-graduate employment prospects. Universities UK noted that impact studies of the programme had found:
Universities UK also highlighted the significance of Erasmus+ in facilitating international mobility, noting that 53% of UK higher education students who go abroad during their studies do so through the programme.
Extracts from the written evidence of Mr Carl Altaner:
Extracts from written evidence from Imperial College London (feedback from returning Erasmus students):
34.A number of witnesses described the ‘soft skills’ students gained through participation in Erasmus+. The University of Chester, for example, suggested there were many “incalculable” benefits of Erasmus, including providing students with “a real insight and understanding of another language and culture as well as enabling them to better understand their home culture”. The East of England Partnership listed the fostering of entrepreneurship and strengthened independent thinking as further benefits. Several witnesses (including Carl Altaner, quoted in Box 3) described how Erasmus participants acted as ‘ambassadors’ for UK education institutions. The Royal Society of Edinburgh said this contributed to “the UK’s ‘public diplomacy’, generating positive international perceptions of the UK, and supporting cultural, political and trade ties”.
35.Witnesses also highlighted the benefits of incoming Erasmus+ students to the UK. The University of East Anglia believed that non-UK students created a “global, outward-looking culture on campus”, which improved the studies and the wider experience of UK students. MillionPlus agreed, and added that international students brought a “tangible economic benefit” to the UK through money spent on their courses and in the local economy of their place of study.
36.Jane Racz, Director of the Erasmus+ UK National Agency, believed that participation in Erasmus+ raised the standard of UK education and training through international collaboration, sharing innovations and best practice. Ms Racz said the programme also contributed to UK economic growth and prosperity by “providing opportunities for young people to develop the skills vital to the UK’s success in the global market, such as communications, critical thinking and problem-solving”.
37.Several witnesses commented on the widespread association of Erasmus+ with studying abroad as part of a degree course. UNA Exchange described this focus as “misleading and exclusionary”, overlooking the impact the programme had on other participants such as those on vocational mobility schemes.
38.John Latham, International Projects Manager at Lancashire & Morecambe College, and representing the Association of Colleges, described how the additional support Erasmus+ provided to people from disadvantaged backgrounds ensured mobility opportunities were available regardless of “social status or economic situation”, which he believed contributed to “general upward social mobility”. Mr Latham noted that Erasmus+ placements were often the first opportunity participants from his college had to travel abroad or indeed, for some, even “as far as the next big city”.
39.Madeleine Rose, Deputy Director of the Erasmus+ UK National Agency, shared the story of Coral, a college student undertaking an electrical engineering course who had undertaken a three-week Erasmus+ work placement in Seville. Ms Rose described how Coral’s placement had changed her “aspirations and career”, and she had gone on to win student of the year at her college before progressing to an apprenticeship. Coral told the National Agency that her Erasmus+ experience had “made a real difference in the interview, because rather than just having college experience she had been out in the workplace”.
40.Early Years—a voluntary organisation working with children in Northern Ireland—drew our attention to the importance of actions supported under Key Action 2 (strategic partnerships). They described various initiatives they had been involved with—including international cooperation projects on Special Educational needs and early childhood educational philosophies—which emphasised such elements as “information exchange and engagement … sustained networks and linkages … capacity building … [and] effective utilisation of current best practice and evidence”. Mr Latham noted a further benefit of Erasmus+ cooperation projects, in enabling smaller organisations like his college to work in partnership with universities, national and international associations, which he said gave students “a clear line of sight to employment prospects and career aspirations”.
41.Universities UK told us:
“Over the past few decades, EU programmes have been crucial in supporting research and innovation within UK universities.”
They pointed out that UK researchers had secured 15.2% of Horizon 2020 funding distributed so far—a proportion second only to that received by Germany—which suggested the UK had been “disproportionately successful at competing for research funding” through the programme.
42.Witnesses also highlighted the non-financial benefits of participation in Horizon 2020. The University of Cambridge, for example, thought that Horizon 2020 “added value … in terms of attracting and retaining the best scientists”.
43.The Royal Society of Chemistry shared an analysis of the relationship between international collaboration and research impact, which found that research funded by EU programmes had a high average impact—and a significantly higher impact than UK Government-funded research. These findings reinforced the role EU programmes played in “supporting excellent science”. The Society also described other benefits of the European framework programmes, including:
44.The Wellcome Trust told us that the EU was the UK’s biggest research partner, with over half of UK collaborative papers co-authored with EU countries. They referenced case studies the Trust had collected which demonstrated that EU research framework programmes had reduced duplication, helped to establish new disciplines, and supported UK companies to engage in Europe (see Box 4).
45.The Royal Society of Edinburgh set out key features they thought had underpinned the success of the UK-EU research relationship, such as the critical mass and strategic coordination of research endeavour, a long-term approach and funding environment for research, and common policy and regulatory frameworks.
Case study from written evidence from Cancer Research UK:
“Because childhood cancers are so rare, collaboration is vital when it comes to research. In 2009, Dr Suzanne Turner founded the European Research Initiative on ALK-related childhood and adult cancers. This international research network brings together 13 partners from seven European countries to co-ordinate research with the goal of developing more efficient, less toxic therapies for children. Through ALKATRAS, a European Training Network developed to train the best early stage researchers in specialist techniques, students and early career fellows gain experience in labs across Europe. They are exposed to other countries’ expertise and resources, develop networks in the global scientific community and further deepen their understanding of cancer and therapies. This ground-breaking programme is only possible through a €4 million grant from the Horizons 2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Innovative Training Network.”
Extracts from ‘Brexit and Beyond: Impact case studies of EU funding’, a paper by the Wellcome Trust:
“In dementia research, EU funding has brought researchers together to make progress, faster. Professor Bart de Strooper and Professor John Hardy at UCL have been at the heart of a team improving progress towards a treatment for Alzheimer’s. A European Research Council (ERC) advanced grant drove Prof de Strooper to explore a new field of research before collaborative funding helped him and others share their methods and techniques. This identified the most efficient way to analyse amyloid plaques linked to dementia. A single technique made comparing results faster, and more effective. But crucially, through the Innovative Medicines Initiative, industry could pick up the technique and exploit it at scale. This close collaboration between academia and industry isn’t found in any other funding mechanism. Profs Hardy and de Strooper recently won the Brain Prize for ground-breaking research on Alzheimer’s interventions …
“Large awards to early career researchers through ERC consolidator awards and Marie-Sklodowska-Curie actions, give scientists leverage to take risks. The UK, through its scientific leadership has traditionally taken advantage of this. By measuring themselves against the best from around Europe, UK-based researchers are sharper and more competitive. Institutes like the Dementia Research Institute use the EU’s competitive application process to save time on recruitment and increase their international visibility, improving collaborations and attracting staff from further afield.”
46.Erasmus+ is the EU programme for education, training, youth and sport. In the UK, Erasmus+ funding has supported more than 4,700 projects and 128,000 participants since the programme began. While many people think of Erasmus+ as a university student exchange scheme, the programme also extends opportunities to study, work, teach or train abroad to other groups, including vocational students, education staff and youth workers. It also supports youth exchanges, international partnership projects, and youth policy development. Witnesses were extremely positive about the impact of Erasmus+, particularly in terms of improving employment prospects, contributing to economic growth, and increasing opportunities for people from disadvantaged backgrounds and those with special needs.
47.Horizon 2020 is the EU’s framework programme for research and innovation. The UK has been both a significant contributor to and beneficiary from Horizon 2020, with the highest share of participants in signed grant agreements and the second highest share of total programme funding distributed. Witnesses agreed that the programme helps to raise the standard of research and supports excellent science in the UK, including by facilitating international research collaboration, providing access to large-scale research facilities, and attracting the best staff to work on research projects.
4 European Council, ‘Celebrating 30 years of the Erasmus Programme’ (15 June 2017): [accessed 2 January 2019] and European Commission, From Erasmus to Erasmus+: a story of 30 years (26 January 2017): [accessed 2 January 2019]
5 European Commission, From Erasmus to Erasmus+: a story of 30 years: [accessed 7 January 2019] and European Commission, Erasmus+ Annual Report 2016: [accessed 7 January 2019]
6 Regulation (EU) No 1288/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 establishing ‘Erasmus+’: the Union programme for education, training, youth and sport and repealing Decisions No 1719/2006/EC, No 1720/2006/EC and No 1298/2008/EC, (20 December 2013)
7 European Commission, Erasmus+ Programme Guide (October 2018) pp 22–24: [accessed 2 January 2019]. Serbia will be recognised as a programme country subject to budget availability in 2019 and the amendment of the EU-Serbia agreement on Serbia’s participation in Erasmus+.
8 European Commission, ‘Actions’: [accessed 2 January 2019]
9 Regulation (EU) No 1288/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 establishing ‘Erasmus+’: the Union programme for education, training, youth and sport and repealing Decisions No 1719/2006/EC, No 1720/2006/EC and No 1298/2008/EC, (20 December 2013) and Erasmus+ UK National Agency, An introduction (November 2018): [accessed 31 December 2018]. Erasmus+ has an overall indicative financial envelope of €14.774 billion under Heading 1 and of €1.680 billion under Heading 4 of the EU Budget for the seven years (2014–2020).
10 Proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing ‘Erasmus’: the Union programme for education, training, youth and sport and repealing Regulation (EU) No 1288/2013,
11 Proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing ‘Erasmus’: the Union programme for education, training, youth and sport and repealing Regulation (EU) No 1288/2013, . See also Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Mid-term evaluation of the Erasmus+ programme (2014–2020),
12 Proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing ‘Erasmus’: the Union programme for education, training, youth and sport and repealing Regulation (EU) No 1288/2013,
13 Under current arrangements, EU Member States have a vote over work programmes drafted by the Commission in Programme Committee meetings. Associated third countries like Norway and Switzerland are typically observers on these Committees, without voting rights.
14 Proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing ‘Erasmus’: the Union programme for education, training, youth and sport and repealing Regulation (EU) No 1288/2013,
15 European Parliament, Legislative train schedule: New boost for jobs, growth and investment, MFF—Erasmus the Union programme for education, training, youth and sport (updated 14 December 2018): [accessed 2 January 2019]
16 ‘Europe’s Framework Programmes - a key element of research policy in Europe’, Horizon: The EU Research & Innovation Magazine (16 December 2014): [accessed 9 January 2019]
17 Regulation (EU) No 1291/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 establishing Horizon 2020 - the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (2014–2020) and repealing Decision No 1982/2006/EC, (20 December 2013)
18 Science and Technology Committee, (2nd Report, Session 2015–16, HL Paper 127). The European Research Council aims to reinforce the excellence, dynamism and creativity of European research by providing long-term funding to support excellent investigators and their research teams to pursue ground-breaking, high-gain/high-risk research. Scientific excellence is the sole criterion on which ERC grants are awarded. Regulation (EU) No 1291/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 establishing Horizon 2020 - the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (2014–2020) and repealing Decision No 1982/2006/EC, (20 December 2013)
19 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions provide grants for all stages of researchers’ careers and encourage transnational, intersectoral and interdisciplinary mobility. MSCA enable research-focused organisations (universities, research centres, and companies) to host talented foreign researchers and create strategic partnerships with leading institutions worldwide. MSCA aim to equip researchers with the necessary skills and international experience for a successful career, either in the public or the private sector. European Commission, ‘Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions’: [accessed 17 January 2019]
20 European Commission, ‘National Contact Points’: [accessed 8 January 2019]
21 Regulation (EU) No 1291/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 establishing Horizon 2020 - the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (2014–2020) and repealing Decision No 1982/2006/EC, (20 December 2013). There are currently 16 countries associated to Horizon 2020: Iceland, Norway, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey, Israel, Moldova, Switzerland, Faroe Islands, Ukraine, Tunisia, Georgia, Armenia. European Commission, Associated Countries: [accessed 8 January 2019]
22 European Commission, Guidance note: Funding of applicants from non-EU countries & international organisations (August 2017): [accessed 8 January 2019]
23 Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing Horizon Europe - the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, laying down its rule for participation and dissemination,
24 Cohesion Policy: the EU’s main investment policy, targeting all regions and cities in the EU to support job creation, business competitiveness, economic growth, sustainable development, and improve quality of life. Digital Europe Programme: a new EU funding programme due to be launched in 2021 to support the digital transformation of Europe’s societies and economies by increasing large-scale deployment of key digital technologies and encouraging their uptake. Connecting Europe Facility: an EU funding instrument to promote growth, jobs and competitiveness through targeted infrastructure investment at the European level.
25 European Commission, EU Budget for the future: Horizon Europe (June 2018): [accessed 8 January 2018]
26 Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing Horizon Europe - the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, laying down its rule for participation and dissemination,
27 Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing Horizon Europe - the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, laying down its rule for participation and dissemination,
28 Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing Horizon Europe - the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, laying down its rule for participation and dissemination,
29 European Parliament, Legislative train schedule: New boost for jobs, growth and investment, MFF—Proposal for a Regulation Horizon Europe - the framework programme for research and innovation 2021–2027 (updated 14 December 2018): [accessed 8 January 2019]
30 Erasmus+ UK National Agency, ‘Erasmus+ in the UK’: [accessed 10 January 2019]
31 Erasmus+ UK National Agency, Statistics for Erasmus+ 2014–2018 (updated September 2018): [accessed 2 January 2019] and Erasmus+ UK National Agency, ‘2019 Erasmus+ Call published’ (25 October 2018): [accessed 2 January 2019]
33 Written evidence from the University of East Anglia ()
34 Written evidence from the East of England European Partnership (). See also written evidence from the University of East Anglia ().
35 Written evidence from the Erasmus+ UK National Agency ()
36 (Gail Armistead)
37 (Amatey Doku)
38 Written evidence from Universities UK ()
39 Written evidence from the University of Chester ()
40 Written evidence from the East of England European Partnership ()
41 See for example written evidence from Imperial College London (), The Royal Society of Edinburgh (), the University of East Anglia (), and Cardiff University ().
42 Written evidence from The Royal Society of Edinburgh ()
43 Written evidence from the University of East Anglia ()
44 Written evidence from MillionPlus (). See also Higher Education Policy Institute & Kaplan International Pathways, The costs and benefits of international students by parliamentary constituency (January 2018) pp 38–39: [accessed 3 January 2019] which estimates the net economic impact per international student in the UK to be £68,000 per ‘typical’ EU-domiciled student in the 2015/16 cohort and £95,000 per non-EU-domiciled student over the duration of their studies.
45 (Jane Racz)
46 Written evidence from UNA Exchange ()
47 (John Latham)
48 (Madeleine Rose)
49 Written evidence from Early Years ()
50 (John Latham)
51 Written evidence from Universities UK ()
55 Written evidences from the Royal Society of Edinburgh ()